Communicable disease bacteria, viral, etc

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  1. MRSA
    S/S- red lesions, pain, swollen, necrosis, abcess- red, swollen, warm

    Medical management- antibiotic (topical), PO, IV, possible I/D, warm compressions

    Nursing Assess- mark borders, Hx- progressing, blood culture/sensitivity of wound,, warm compression, f/u treatment

    Nurse managment- wound care, warm comp, changing dressing, antibiotic

    • Pt education- handwash
    • sharing items, touching contiminated things
  2. Scarlet Fever Group A hemolytic strep
    S/S- sore throat, fever 101-102, chills, body aches, no eat, bellyache, N/V, headache, back of throat is red

    Med manage- antibiotic (PENICILLIN) for 10days, other if allergic erthromycin 

    Nursing- hx, s/su

    nursing management- throat culture, cool mist, warm liquids, popsicles, soft foods, 

    pt ed- 24 hours contagious, not sharing drinks, change beddings, comfort, fluids, take all meds

    no report, rhemotic fever, kidney problems, tonsils white patches, tongue red, lymph nodes swollen (starts out white furry and then red), rash- toxins the bacteria produce (sandpaper rash), eventual the skin will peel sometimes
  3. Diptheria (throat)
    • reportable
    • s/s- gray membrane grows on throat-psuedomembrane (on the back of throat), airway obstruction, swollen neck & nodes, 

    Med manage- antibiotic, antitoxins

    Nursing assess- Hx- sore throat, fever difficulty swollen

    • nursing manage- throat culture, monitor airway,on droplet precautions 
    • bedrest for three weeks,

    • pt education- prevent immunization, finish meds
    • close f/u, prophalytic antibiotics (family needs this and to be immunization)
    • if in the hospital u would have to keep emergency equipment around bc of the possible air way obstruction
  4. Pertussis - whooping cough
    booster with tdap at 11
    reportable, acute respiratory disorder, babies die from this, long incubation period up to 3 weeks

    s/s- running nose, conjunctivitis, bloody nose, exhausted, decrease breath sound, u may not hear alot of air moving not enough air, babies they may choke

    med manage- labs- increase wbc esp lymphcytes, chest x-ray, nasal/pharyngyl swap

    nursing- small frequent meals (bc of coughing, incre fluids, may have to be IV (bc cough), antibiotics, 

    • nurse assess- ask about immunization, hx, 
    • nursing mana- droplet precautions for five days, oxygen (humidify oxygen), monitor them for any changes rr, quiet enviroment bc stimulation can cause cough again

    • pt ed- immunization w/dtap (younger) and booster tdap (age 11), avoid cough suppresant, u want them to cough out
    • 3 mon- 6 years of age
  5. Tetanus
    reportable, muscle gets tight, found in dusk, soil, in maneuer, fatal neurological disease, rusty nail, opisthonos- severe muscle spasm of the neck and back

    s/s- lock jaw, respiratory difficulty, fractures, incre bp, cardiac dysrhymia, clots in leg, coma

    Med manage- support respiratory/cardiac distress, IV antibiotic, muscle relaxant, labs/culture (incr wbc)

    Nursing assess- hx- headache spasm, jaw cramping, LOC changes, DTR brisk (super hyper), NPO

    Nursing manag- NPO, quiet enviroment, pain manage, hydration, wound depris, emergency equip at bedside, seizure precautions

    • Pt education- how to care- bleed it out, clean, bactercerim, immuniz tdap, TD (adult)
    • booster- every 10 years and if u have risk for exposure and ur booster is > 5 years get another booster
  6. Rubella (viral)- german measles
    reportable- maculopapular rash- some flat and some raised, mildly contagious, rash can be on the face trunks and legs

    s/s swollen nodes all the back nodes, low fever< 101, conjunctivitis, if preg woman has this and baby < 20w can come out with malformation,  

    med manag- labs, throat cultures, blood cultures, tynelol, antihistamines, nsaids, 

    Nursing assess- droplet/contact precautions at least 7 days after (5-9 some adolescants)

    nursing man- comfort measures for the skin

    pt ed- immuniz, pregnant go to md,
  7. measels (rubeola) contagious

    s/s rash- kopliks spots in mouth alceration, preschool kids, high temp 103-105, edema around the eyes, conjunctivitis, discharge from the eyes, itchy rash

    medical maanag- cbc, culture, antypyretics, immuniz

    nursing- soft/small frequent meals, incre fluids, airborne precautions 4 days, meds, keep on bedrest, comfort, communicable five days after the rash comes
  8. chicken pots (varicella) contagious
    • report
    • s/s fever, fluid filled vesicles- the break and then they crust over, maculopaplar, secondary to staph infection (bc they open up). 

    Med manage- antipyretic, antihistamine, acyclovir- antiviral (use for herpes/shingles)

    • nursing- hx, comfort for rash, aveeno bath, physical assessment, calomine, cool compress, citifil, cut fingernails, contact isolation, live virus 
    • immunize- given sc 
    • dont give aspirin excerberate reyes syndrome

    pt ed- all bumps need to be crusted over in order to return to school
  9. Roseola acute infection benign, small kiddies
    s/s- starts off as fever and then fever gone and then turns into rash (fever usually 103-105), rash doesn't itch, sore throat, listless

    med management- antipyretic

    nursing- blanch all rashes (make sure they turn white cause that mean it is not a vascular rash), tepid bath, offer emotional support, bc fever is high they may have febrile seizure, seizure precautions, no aspirin, 6mon- 3 year
  10. Erythema infectiosum- 5th disease slapped cheek
    pregnant women are at risk 1st trimester- can indicate something is wrong with child- non reportable

    s/s- low grade fever, feeling unwell, headache, a week later then rash errupts on (children can end up with rash all over the body). not itching and it takes up to 21 days to go away. 

    medical man- nothing much just watch person, suggest prego women go to MD, if adults get it instead of a rash the may have swollen joints thru out body 5-15 age support problems they have

    Nursin assess- hx, comfort measure- antihistamine, tepid, aveeno bath, cool compress, light clothing, incre fluids, keep finger nails short

    pt education- they can return to school when rash appears
  11. Mumps
    parotid gland gets swollen (report), acute viral infection, looks like chipmucks with nuts in cheek, transmitted thru saliva, earache (probably while chewing), immunize against this

    s/s swollen parotid gland, earache, fever, unwell, muscle aches, orchitis- testicular swollen

    med mana- md labs, high wbc, high amylase (problem with pancreas), immunize

    • nursing assess/manage- immunize, check for exposure, treatment cool compression, 20 min and 20 mins off, droplet precaution- 5 days after swollen, analgesics for pain, nsaids, antibiotic, ice packs to the scrotum, provide support to that area
    • bedrest, fluids
    • reportable
    • lasting immunity just bc they got the mumps

    pt ed- 9 days after the swollen started they can go back to school
  12. rabies
    viral infection to the CNS caused by a bit by animal comes from animals, raccoon, fox, bats, snunks, 

    s/s: pain at bit site, fever, headache, agigated and restful (goes to brain), highly fatal, inc salivation, pupils dilated, sensitive to light, delirum, seizures coma then dies, treated quickly

    med mana- labs, respiratory issue- abg's, give them doses of rabies vaccines- never vaccinated u get five doses (immediated along with a dose of rabies immunoglobin, 3rd, 7th, 14th, 28th), if u had vaccine- u need two doses only

    nursing- wash wound w/soap and water, iodine to flush, antivirus solution, sterile dressing, u don't want to stop bleeding u want virus to come out 

    pt ed- don't go near these animals in the days and get animals vaccinated 

  13. Lyme
    comes from deer tick, (vaccine), burgorferi bacteria

    s/s- bull's eye rash (erthyma chronicom), rash may spread, sniff nick, headache, heart block, aches affects multisystem (bacteria goes all over)

    med- treated with antibiotic dicicyline (can hide in the immune system) > 8 

    no vaccine for children, vaccine for adults who are at risk

    • nursing- ask about exposure, and bulls eye rash, s/s
    • finish antibiotics

    pt ed- socks boots, pants tucked into socks with hiking boots, wear light clothing, do a tick check, use twitzer get as close to the skin and get it off. high neck line

    ticks on for 24 hrs u are at a greater risk for getting lyme
  14. Lice Pediculosis capitis
    commonly found behind the ears and neckline,  check by spreading the hair apart. 

    s/s- itching, nits (eggs)

    med manage- shampoo (lice), OTC

    nursing- hx exposure, allergies, skin changes, lymphanopathy, swollen nodes

    • pt edu- how to wash hair (hot water), teach how to use lice comb to comb out nits, u don't keep kids out of school, no sharing hats, combs ect
    • put sheets etc in hot water, comforter wrap in black bag for 14 days. 
  15. pediculosis pubis
    • similar to lice- pubic lice
    • u can use a shampoo leave on for ten minutes and apply lotion

    get both by direct transmission 
  16. Scabies
    8 leg parasite in between the digits- tunneling underneath the skin.

    s/s itchy and contagious, alot of scratching excorias

    med manage- use scabicide, to get rid of mits antiscabie

    nursin- contact precautions, any clothing worn 4 days to knowing need to be washed in hot water and dried
  17. pinworm 
    enterobias vermiculas
    in the rectal area- come out at night to lay eggs

    s/s more itchy in the morning

    med manage- tape paddle and press against anal area to see if there are eggs on it. u have to teach how to do it. best time to collect in the morning (single dose)

    pt ed- everyone in the family need to treated- teach handwashing 
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Communicable disease bacteria, viral, etc
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