WHAP 12 Review

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  1. Period of political disorder and chaotic warfare following Qin-Han era?
    Era of Division, Period of the Six Dynasties
  2. Dynasty that ended the period of political chaos after fall of Quin-Han?
  3. Characteristics of period after the fall of the Han?
    Ruled by non-Chinese Buddhism eclipsed Confucianism
  4. Why - rapid revival of empire under Tang?
    Preservation of Confucian traditions
  5. Who - created Sui dynasty?
    Wendi, prominent north Chinese noble family member (589)
  6. Why - reunification of Chinese under first Sui emperor possible?
    Support of nomadic warrior elite
  7. Creation of granaries - why important?
    Reserve food supply, ward of famine, hold down prices
  8. Primary reform enacted during reign of first Sui emperor?
    Lowering taxes and establish granaries
  9. Role of Confucian scholar gentry?
    Help administer China, loyal, well-educated officials to govern
  10. Downfall of Sui dynasty - why?
    Excessive military expenses and grandiose building projects
  11. Li Yuan?
    Duke of Tang, minister of Yangdi, founder of Tang dynasty
  12. Extent of the Tang empire?
    300 years, far larger than early Han, Afghanistan, Tibet, Vietnam, Manchuria
  13. Attitude of Tang emperors toward Confucian scholar gentry?
    Support revival at expense of aristocracy
  14. Ministry of Rites?
    Responsible for administration of Confucian examination system
  15. Jinshi?
    Title for those who passed most difficult exams on all Chinese literature
  16. How did one enter Chinese bureaucracy?
    Examination system, birth still important
  17. Elite class of China - attracted to what variant of Buddhism?
    Chan (Zen) stressed meditation and appreciation of natural, artistic beauty
  18. Pure Land Buddhism?
    Stress salvation popular in masses
  19. Who attempted to have Buddhism recognized as a state religion?
    Empress Wu
  20. What event - most damaging to Buddhism's popularity?
    Campaign of Confucianists to convince Tang rulers of Buddhism posed economic challenge
  21. When - open persecution of Buddhism?
    Under Emperor Wuzong (841 - 847)
  22. Results - imperial attempt to suppress Buddhism?
    Survived in reduced state w/o much political influence
  23. Impact on Confucianism of Tang repression of Buddhists?
    Emerge as central ideology
  24. Women who gained influence and power during later years of Tang?
    Empress Wu, Empress Wei, Yang Guifei
  25. Problems during the last years of the Tang dynasty?
    Revolts, political divisions, no match, take control of north allies, become independent rulers, worsening economy
  26. Founder of Song dynasty?
    Zhao Kuangyin (Taizu), a general
  27. Jurchen?
    Invading group caused fight of Song from northern China, founders of Qin, succeeded Liao
  28. Compare Song and Tang empires?
    Song never matched Tang in political, military, or domain
  29. Position of scholar gentry under Song?
    Continued its ascent over its aristocratic and Buddhist rivals
  30. Zhu Xi?
    Most prominent of neo-Confucicians during Song, apply philosophical principles to life
  31. Wang Anshi?
    Song prime minister 1070s - 1080s attempted to introduce reforms based on Legalist schools
  32. Impact of development of neo-Confucian schools of thought?
    less receptive outside ideas, stifled innovation and critical thinking, reinforced class, age and gender distinctions
  33. Reforms introduced by Wang Anshi?
    Cheap loans, irrigation projects, taxed landlords/scholarly, replace army with mercenary forces, and change education/examination system
  34. Causes - flight of Song dynasty from northern China?
  35. Grand Canal?
    Yangdi, joined Yellow River region to Yangtze basin p. 275
  36. Economic developments during period of commercial expansion (during Tang and Song dynasties)?
    Increase amount of cultivation/production land, commercial contracts, credit system
  37. Urbanization in China during Tang-Song era?
    Increase p.276
  38. Hangzhou?
    Capital of later Song, international commerce
  39. Agricultural policies of the Sui and Tang emperors?
    Broke up large landed estates and gave land to the peasants
  40. Chinese landscape painting?
  41. Food binding - why?
    Reduce size, produce pain, restricted movement, confine women to house
  42. Technological innovation of Tang-Song?
    Gun powder, abacus, porcelain, complex bridges, marinetime tools, junk, (not paper)
  43. What intellectual school responsible for production of most literary and artistic works during Tang-Song era?
    Scholar gentry elite
  44. Group responsible for the falll of the southern Song dynasty - 1279?
    Mangols under Kubilai Khan
  45. Primary difference between marriages of the upper and lower classes in Tang-Song China?
    No answer
  46. Status of women in Tang-Song era?
    Improved under Tang, last rights, under Song
  47. Bi Sheng?
    11th century artisan, invented movable type
  48. Outstanding poet of the Tang era?
    Li Bo, blend image of mudane world with philosophical
  49. Interest of Confucian intellectuals in nature - most apparent in production of?
    landscape paintings
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WHAP 12 Review
WHAP Chapter 12 review
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