Comparitive Psychology - 3

  1. Propagation
    when a ripe fruit is eaten together with non-digestible seeds, and later deposited, with a little fertilizer, away from parent plant
  2. Toxic Fruit
    • un-ripe fruits
    • - colors usually detect toxicivity of fruit for consumers
    • - often not noticed til after digestion by omnivores
  3. C/B
    Cost vs. Benfit
  4. Generalist Feeders
    feeders that will eat anything that doesn't eat them first
  5. Omnivores
    (General Feeders) exploit whatever is available
  6. Omnivore Sensory Systems
    designed to detect a wide array of foods
  7. Omnivore Dention
    not specialized
  8. Omnivore Disgestion Mechanisms
    designed to digest a variety of foods
  9. Omnivore Taste Aversion
    (taste systems) well developed
  10. Temperate Zones
    where there are seasons and seasonal variations in types of foods can be exploited
  11. Specialist Feeders
    feeders well adapted to a specific diet in terms of location, capture, consummation (using a specialized dention), and digestion of a specific food source
  12. Specialist Sensory Mechanism
    • evolved to best exploit their ecological niche
    • (same as dental and digestive mechanisms)
  13. Specialists Dental Mechanisms
    • evolved to best exploit their ecological niche
    • (same as sensory and digestive mechanisms)
  14. Specialists Digestive Mechanisms
    • evolved to best exploit their ecological niche
    • (same as sensory and dental mechanisms)
  15. Tropics
    areas where specific food is available year-round
  16. Convergent Feeders
    filter feeders
  17. Co-Evolution
    where a food source (flowers' nectar) in order to optimize population, have evolved flower shapes and configurations to optimize feeding by one specific species
  18. Small Particles
    pollination though the use of pseudopodia (amoebas), cilia, mucoid surfaces, flagella, nematocysts, tentacles, setous (threadlike)
  19. Large Particles
    swallowing of particles or the substrate containing the food (earthworms)
  20. Boring/ Scraping
    snail teeth, algae eaters
  21. Seizing, constricting and swallowing
  22. Mastication
    beaks, teeth – incisors, canines, premolars and molars
  23. Tearing off chunks
    big reptiles, lions
  24. External digestion
  25. Soft tissue or fluids
    usually invertebrates but, think of vampire bats, humming birds etc.
  26. Absorption through body walls
    internal parasites, mites and micro-organisms
  27. Internal Parasites
  28. Mites
    parasitic in your eye brows (or worse… in inner ear)
  29. Jumpers and Climbers
    brachiates such as gibbons and other monkeys
  30. Pollination Systems
    feature Co-evolution where both flower and pollinizers evolve to optimize for both plant and animal
  31. Dilute Nector
    pollination system in which butterflies need both water and calories.
  32. Concentrated Nector
    pollination system in which humming birds, need to maintain body temperature and fly, therefore, have a very high metabolic rate.
  33. Reptiles
    use of either smell or vision to find food
  34. Infra-red
    detect warm blooded food (pit vipers)
  35. Ultra-violet
  36. Gymnarchus
    generates a weak electrical field – can detect food objects that disrupt the electric field (electric)
  37. Search Image
    where the attention evoking power of an object is enhanced by reinforcement or punishment
  38. Taste Sensitivity
    special tissue needs may also determine what to eat
  39. Ring Dance
    communication done when the distance to food is less than 50 meters
  40. Waggle Dance
    communication done when the distance to food is greater than 50 meters
  41. Active Hunting
    “To pursue or not to pursue??” aka “Safe-Distance Learning”
  42. Safe-Distance Learning
    active hunting
  43. Searching Passively
    choosing a waiting site and the competition for that site is critical
  44. Camouflage (cryptsis) and mimicry
    important in searching passively
  45. Cooperative Hunting
    the ability to plan, communicate those plans, and signal changes while the hunt is on
  46. Tools
    inanimate objects – not internally manufactured that are manipulated in such a way so as to improve the efficiency of the user
  47. “Woodpecker” Finch
    use cactus spine as a tool to capture wood dwelling insects
  48. Ant Lions
    kick sand
  49. Archer Fish
    spurts streams of water at insects...
  50. Vultures, Crows, Seagulls
    hurling eggs or clam shells onto rock
  51. Sea Otters
    use a rock on their chests as they try to crack abalone shells
  52. Chimps and Termite
    fishing and use of rock/ indentations in rock as hammer and ancil to crack nuts
  53. Chimps
    modifty leaf through chewing to serce as sponge
  54. Apes
    make tools for dipping honey and forplumbing the depth of water in streams
  55. Dolphins
    use a sponge while bottom feeding
  56. Alcohol
    found in ripe fruit (can be distilled from fermented fruit) associated with a lot of calories and a characteristic odor
  57. Spices
    will kill bacteria and/or can serve as preservatives. Also, may aid in digestion, provide nutrient and vitamins.
  58. Epazote
    decreases the most noxious aspect of bean eating...
  59. Dirt
    counters or removes toxins and provides for dietary needs
  60. Habitat Selection
    involves searching for a new place to live. Traveling to, locating, securing, and defending the new habitat are critical. in some cases, adaptations are necessary
  61. Incest Taboo
    disperse tends to decrease inbreeding
  62. Philopatric
    those who stay
  63. Density Independent
    may be due to fire, hurricanes, and drastic environmental changes
  64. Density Dependent
    may be due to disease, decreases in food, increases in predation, or overcrowding
  65. Orientation
    a movement in direction
  66. Navigation
    allows for correction of travel path in the event of displacement
  67. Clock Shift Experiments
    the location of the sun is usually in tune with the internal clock
  68. Geomagnetic Cues
    magnetic lines of force; can provide both latitude and longitude information for homing and migration
  69. Longitudinal Information
    will indicate direction of travel, but will not tell animal HOW FAR it must travel
  70. Latitudinal Information
    how far to travel
  71. DIP
    inclination at poles and strength is greatest at the poles
  72. ferromagnetic otoliths
    located in the part of the inner ear normally associated with balance, body position, acceleration, etc.
  73. Olfactory Chemical Cues
    almost always in water
  74. Fresh-water eels
    the champions of chemical cue utilization
  75. Sargasso Sea
    (near Bermuda Triangle) where mating of the freshwater eels takes place
  76. Territoriality
    the most fit controls the territory
  77. Communication
    when an evolved signal is sent from one individual to another individual, and the recipient responds.
  78. Origins of Communication
    can’t say for sure (except for humans), but one approach is to compare closely related species for signs of differential richness (i.e., complexity that conveys subtle information) when those species are compared.
  79. Defense
    signaling groups to gather for mutual defense
  80. Endocrinological Systems
    nervous system
  81. Stereotyped
    when signal is same for all individuals and is consistent
  82. Graded Aspects
    the degree or strength of the message
  83. Intentional Movements
    the beginning portions of an attack sequence
  84. Displacement Activities
    have to be wired in or learned since the meaning is not intuitively obvious
  85. Autonomic Responses
    responses that are hard to fake
  86. Vasodilatation
  87. Piloerection
    hair standing on end
  88. Urinating or Deficating
    other deposits such as spitting, hormonal marking, etc.
  89. Meta-Communication
    communicating about communications
  90. Epimeletic Behavior
    giving behavior
  91. Et-epimetitic Behavior
    soliciting behavior
  92. Vision Cues
    widely used... behavioral signals might be brief- displays, plumage, and other physical aspects are longer lasting. Almost always requires light
  93. Auditory Cues
    very brief... must often be repeated (sensory memory for sounds is longer than for vision...)
  94. Ultra-Low Frequency Sounds
    found in elephants and whale
  95. Ultra-High Frequency Sonar
    used by bats, dolphins, whales, etc.
  96. Olfactory Cues
    must be up wind or in near vicinity for an extended period of time...
  97. Pheromonal Control of Mating
    Priming, Attraction and Signally "No longer available"
  98. Touch Cue
    grooming or kneading
  99. Surface Vibrations
    can pick up vibrations in the earth.
  100. Language
    language based on human language characteristics
  101. Vocalizations and Meta-Communication
    use of prosody and facial expressions....
Card Set
Comparitive Psychology - 3
Comparative Psychology Test 3