Notecard 1

  1. Sternocleidomastoid: breastbone-clavicle-mastoid process

    Action: prime mover of active head flexion; individually each muscle rotates head towards the shoulder on opposite side
    • O: manubrium of sternum and medial portion of clavicle
    • I: mastoid process and superior nuchal line of occipital bone
  2. scalenus: uneven
    anterior, middle, posterior 

    Action: elevates first two ribs (respiration); flexes and rotates neck
    • O: transverse process of cervicle vertebrae 
    • I: anterolaterally (front & side) on first two ribs
  3. splenius: 
    capitus (head), cervicis (neck)

    Action: act as a group to extend of hyperextend the head; when one side, head is rotated and bent laterally towards same side
    • O: nuchal ligament and spinous processes of C7-T6 vertebrae
    • I: mastoid process and transverse processes of C2-C4 vertebrae
  4. Erector spinae: 

    Action: helps control action of bending forward; act as powerful extensors to return to erect position; during full flexion (fingers to floor) erector spinae are relaxed
    • Iliocostalis
    • Longissimus
    • Spinalis
  5. Iliocoastalis: rib
    lumborum, thoracis, cervicis

    Action: extend vertebral column; acting on one side, bends vertebral column to same side
    • O: iliac crest (lumborum); inferior 6 ribs (thoracis); ribs 3-6 (cervicis)
    • I: angles of ribs (lumborum, thoracis); transverse processes of cervical vertebrae C6-C4 (cervicis)
  6. Longissimus:
    thoracis, cervicis, capitis

    Action: thoracis and cervicis act together to extend vertebral column, or on one side to laterally bend; capitis extends head and turns the face toward same side
    • O: transverse process of lumbar through cervical vertebrae
    • I: transverse processes of thoracic or cervical vertebrae and to ribs superior to origin; capitis inserts to mastoid process
  7. Spinalis:
    thoracic, cervicis

    Action: extends vertebral column
    • O: spines of upper lumbar and lower thoracic vertebrae
    • I: spines of upper thoracic and cervical vertebrae
  8. Semispinalis
    thoracis, cervicis, capitis

    Action: extends vertebral column and head and rotates them to opposite side; acts synergistically with sternocleidomastoid muscles of opposite side
    • O: transverse processes of C7-T12
    • I: occipital bone (capitis); spinous processes of cervical vertebrae (cervicis); thoracic vertebrae T1-T4 (thoracis)
  9. Quadratus lumborum: foursided-lumbar region

    Action: flexes vertebral column laterally when acting separately; when paired, lumbar spines is extended and 12th rib is fixed; maintains upright posture
    • O: iliac crest and lumbar fascia
    • I: transverse processes of upper lumbar vertebrae and lower margin of 12th rib
  10. External intercostals: toward the outside- between rib

    Action: pulls ribs toward one another to elevate rib cage; aids in respiration; synergist to diaphragm
    • O: inferior border of rib above
    • I: superior border of rib below
  11. Internal intercostals: toward the inside- between ribs

    Action: aids in drawing ribs together and forced respiration; antagonist to external intercostals
    • O:  superior border of rib below
    • I: inferior border of rib above
  12. Diaphragm: across-partition

    Action: prime mover of inspiration
    • O: inferior, internal surface of rib cage and sternum, costal cartilages of last six ribs and lumbar vertebrae
    • I: central tendon
Card Set
Notecard 1