Child Dev-2

  1. The brain
    • regulates body temperature
    • 1/2 of the length of the embryo at 8 weeks
  2. Proximodistal:
    • from the trunk outward
    • (body's central axis toward the periphery)
    • brain and and spinal cord follow a central axis down through the body
  3. Cephalocaudal:
    • Upper to lower parts of the body
    • head develops more rapidly then the rest of the body
  4. Differentation:
    • Tendency of behavior to become more specific and distinct
    • The infant engages in diffuse motor activity
    • Grasping and holding becomes more sophisticated
  5. ___ mature more quickly than____
    Girls; boys
  6. Federal Food Programs:
    • Food Stamp Program
    • Women, Infants, and Children (WIC)
    • National School Lunch and Breakfast Programs
    • Kids in poverty 34%
  7. ___% of children are under or between the poverty level
  8. 4 to 6 months children can...
    Eat solid foods
  9. At 4 months this prevents babies from...
    tongue thrusts
  10. Breast Feeding v. Bottle Feeding
    Recommendation: infants be breast fed milk through first year
  11. What do women move form breast feeding to bottle feeding?
    • Women get back into the workforce
    • Bottle feeding-scientific
    • Women's movement
  12. Babies prefer what?
    Human milk to formula
  13. Disadvantages of breast milk
    • HIV, alcohol, drugs, environmental hazards
    • Mother must be adequately nourished
  14. Dendrites
    root like parts of a neuron that receive impulses from other neurons
  15. Neurons
    Cells that receive and transmit messages from one part of the body to another
  16. Axon
    A long, thin part of a neuron that transmits impulses to other neurons trough small branching structures called axon terminals
  17. Neurotransmitter
    Chemical substance that makes possible the transmission of neural impulses from one neuron to another
  18. Myelin Sheath
    Fatty, white substance that encases and insulates neurons, permitting more rapid transmission of neural impulses
  19. Three parts of the brain and their functions
    • Medulla: Basic body functions: heartbeat, respiration
    • Cerebellum: Balance, motor behavior, eye movement w/ body sens.
    • Cerebrum: learning, through, memory, language
  20. Infants have more what than adults
    • Neural connections
    • if activated they survive; if not they do not survive
  21. Head and Torso lifting occur when?
    • 1 month- head
    • 2 months- chest
  22. Ulnar grasp:
    Method of grasping objects in which the fingers close somewhat clumsily against the palm
  23. Pincer Grasp
    Grasping using the thumb and other fingers
  24. Piaget's Cognitive Development
    • 1. Simple Reflexes: 0-1 month- "look and see"
    • 2. Primary circular reactions: 1-4 months- repetition of actions
    • 3. Secondary circular reactions: 4-8 months- focus shifts to external objects and events
    • 4. Coordination of secondary schemes: 8-12 months- looking and grasping to attain specific goals
    • 5. Tertiary circular reactions: 12-18 months- trial and error in problem solving
    • 6. Invention of new means through mental combinations: 18-24 months- reps. of objects and events and the beginnings of symbolic thoughts
  25. Object Permanence
    Hiding something butt he child still knowing it's there
  26. Best predictor of IQ scores
    visual recognition memory
  27. Ainsworth had what theory?
    • Attachment: a tie between the child and their caregiver
    • Used the strange situation to monitor attachment
  28. Bowlby
    Attachment is essential for the survival of the infant
  29. Harlow
    As opposed to Freud Harlow believed that breast feeding is merely for comfort and has nothing to do with attachment
  30. Contact comfort
    The pleasure derived from physical contact with another; a hypothesized need or drive for physical contact with another
  31. Neglect:
    Not caring for your child; emotionally, physically, or psychologically.
  32. Abuse:
    Physically hurting your children
  33. Three types of neglect
    Physical, Educational, Emotional
  34. Three types of Abuse:
    Physical, Sexual, Emtional
  35. Why child abuse runs in families...
    • Parents are role models
    • Insecure attachment style
    • Exposure in the home
  36. Dealing with Abuse
    • Reporting it
    • Preventing it:
    • -strengthening parenting skills
    • -home visits to high risk groups
    • -providing support
    • -increase public awareness
  37. Brain Plasticity
    One part taking over for an injured or impaired part of the brain
  38. ______heavier and taller than______
  39. Corpus Callosum
    The thick 'bundle of nerve' fibers that connects the hemispheres of the brain
  40. Hours preschoolers should spend being
  41. Highest level of activity
    3 to 5 year old children are more likely to engage in the most physical activity
  42. Growth rate slows
    • 2 to 3 inches per year
    • 4 to 6 pounds per year
  43. Specialization of hemispheres
    • Left: math, logic
    • Right: emotional, reading
  44. Gross motor skills
    Involve large muscles used in locomotion
  45. Children's drawing progression
    Placement>shape>design>pictorial stages
  46. Nutrition: Salts and Sugars
    Preference for sugar and salt with exposure. Everything in moderation
  47. Minor Illness
    • Respiratory infections
    • Gastrointestinal upsets
    • In developing countries diarrhea; illness is leading killer of children
  48. Most common cause of death in young children in the US
    • Motor vehicle accidents
    • Accident rate is highest among low-income children
  49. Preschoolers need an average of________ per 24 hours
    • 10 to 11 of sleep
    • -9 to 10 at night
    • -1 to 2 hour nap
  50. Sleep terrors
    • Associated with stress
    • Occur during early in the night
  51. Nightmares
    Occur during REM sleep
  52. Toilet training
    • Between 3 to 4 in the US
    • Bed-wetting: more frequent in boys than girls
Card Set
Child Dev-2