Immuno - Lecture 2 - 2

  1. Activation of CD4+ T cells fits into a ______________ model.

    • Interaction of the _________and __________ on the T cell with ___________ and __________ on the APC provides stimulus for the 1st signal/induction/activation of CD4+ T cells.
    • TCR and CD28
    • MHC complex (B7) and CD80/86
  2. The 1st downstream signal transduction, leading to T cell activation emanates from the ____________.
    TCR and CD28
  3. ___________________________ serves as the second signal in T cell activation.
    The receptors on the antigen are stimulated by some stimuli resulting in co-stimulation
  4. ____________is a co-stimulatory molecule expressed constitutively on naïve T cells.

    • ____________ expressed on the antigen presenting cells serve as co-stimulators for naïve T cells.
    • CD80 and CD86
  5. The TCR is associated with CD3 and forms ____________ complex.
    the TCR-CD3
  6. CD__ is present on helper T cells and CD__ is present on cytotoxic T cells
    • 4
    • 8
  7. CD4 works as a monomer with four ________ in its extracellular protium.
    Ig domains
  8. CD8 functions as a dimer involving either a_______________ or __________________.
    α and αβ chains or two identical α chains
  9. The specificity of antigen recognition T cell response is dependent on the interaction between the _____________, ________________ and ________________.
    TCR, the MHC peptide complex and the APC
  10. The binding of antigen to antibody involves the formation of multiple _____________bonds between the antigen and ______________of the antibody.
    • non-covalent
    • amino acids
  11. Antigen-antibody complex results from ____________bonding, ____________bonding, ______________bonds and ________________bonds.
    • Hydrogen
    • Electrostatic
    • van der Waals
    • hydrophobic
  12. The antigens are _____________dimensional structures.
  13. Different antibodies to an antigen often bind to overlapping_____________.
  14. Technically, antibodies may be produced against any _______________but this is usually not the case.
    Part of the antigen
  15. Certain areas of the antigen are particularly antigenic and, that the majorities of the antibodies bind to these regions which are called________________ regions.
  16. What is HLS?
  17. The ability to discriminate (Self versus Non-Self) is achieved through ______________.
  18. All antigens, both self and non-self, are recognized by T cells in the context of the______________.
  19. (T/F) CD4+ cells and CD8+ cells recognize antigens similarly.
    False (differently)
  20. Helper T cells (CD4+) recognize antigens in conjunction with MHC class _____molecules.
  21. Cytolytic T cells (CD8+) antigens in context of MHC class _____ molecules.
  22. During embryogenesis T cells recognizing _____________in the context of MHC molecules are eliminated.
    self antigens
  23. During embryogenesis, T cells potentially recognizing _____________antigens in the presence of MHC molecules are retained.
  24. Auto-immune disease is caused by a breakdown in_________________________________________.
    the elimination of self-recognizing T cells
  25. Failure to recognize foreign antigens results in __________________.
  26. MHC molecules have evolved from the same gene as _______________and _____________molecules
    Immunoglobulins and T cell receptor
  27. MHC class I and class II molecules have different _____________, ________________ and ______________.
    structure, distribution and function
  28. MHC class I molecules include _____________________________.
    HLA-A, HLA-B and HLA-C
  29. MHC class II molecules include_______________________________.
  30. MHC class III molecules include_________________.
    complement system
  31. HLA (MHC) Class I Molecules (HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C) are found in what cells?
    Ubiquitous on virtually every cell
  32. What are the functions of HLA (MHC) Class I Molecules (HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C) ?
    • Present processed antigenic fragment to CD8+ T cells
    • Restrict cell-mediated cytolysis of virus-infected cells (may be the main reason for their presence on every cell in the body)
  33. HLA (MHC) Class II Molecules (HLA-D, HLA-DR, HLA-DP, HLA-DQ) are found in what cells?
    • Restricted to immune-competent cells
    • Particularly they are present on B cells and macrophages
  34. What is the function of HLA (MHC) Class II Molecules (HLA-D, HLA-DR, HLA-DP, HLA-DQ)?
    • Present processed antigenic fragments to helper T cells (CD4+)
    • Recognition of antigenic fragment by the TCR on the surface of CD4+ cells, resulting in the initiation of immune response.
  35. The initiation of immune response is characterized by the proliferation of ___________and the secretion of a battery of______________.
    • helper T cells
    • cytokines
Card Set
Immuno - Lecture 2 - 2
Immuno - Lecture