Immuno - Lecture 1 - 1

  1. INNATE IMMUNITY includes what?
    • Physical Barriers
    • Cellular Barriers
    • Chemical Barriers
  2. What are the Features of Innate Immunity?
    • First Line of Defense
    • Present on Birth
    • Non-specific
    • Resistance not improved by repeated infections
    • Physiological Barriers
    • Phagocytosis, Inflammation, Fever
  3. What are the characteristics of the Adaptive/Acquired Immunity?
    • Resistance improves after repeated infections
    • Cells involved include B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes and Macrophages
    • Primary and secondary lymphoid organs are involved in the process
  4. What is an IMMUNOGEN?
    Any agent inducing an immune response
  5. What are the characteristics of an immunogen?
    • Foreignness
    • High Molecular Weight
    • Chemical Complexity
  6. What is an Antigen?
    Any agent capable of binding specifically to components of immune response
  7. What are the antigens composed of?
    • Carbohydrates
    • Lipids
    • Nucleic Acids
    • Proteins
  8. What are Antibodies?
    Soluble globulin proteins
  9. What are the characteristics of antibodies?
    • Specificity
    • Distinct biological activity
    • Four chain structure: two identical light and two identical heavy chains
    • Three fragments of equal sizes
    • Fab fragment
    • Fc fragment
  10. What are the Functions of IgG?
    • Agglutination , precipitation and opsonisation
    • Conferral of immunity to fetus
    • ADCC
    • Activation of complement
    • Neutralization of toxins and viruses
    • Immobilization of bacteria
  11. What are the Properties of IgM?
    • Pentamer molecule
    • Synthesized after immunization
    • Elevated levels levels indicate recent infection
    • Synthesized by placenta and elevated levels in fetus indicative of congenital infection
    • Best agglutinating and complement-activating antibody
  12. What are the properties/functions of IgA?
    • Major immunoglobulin in secretions
    • Monomeric as well as Diameric
    • Role in Mucosal infections
    • Bactericidal Activity
    • Antiviral Activity
  13. What are the properties/functions of IgD?
    • Causes the differentiation of B cells to a more mature form
    • Present on the surface of B lymphocytes
    • Present in monomeric form
  14. What are the properties/functions of IgE?
    • Reaginic antibody
    • Protects against parasites
    • Important role in hypersensitivity
  15. How do Primary and Secondary Antibody Responses differ?
    • Time course; secondary response has a shorter lag phase and an extended plateau and decline
    • Antibody titer: greater in secondary response
  16. What are the LYMPHOID CELLS?
    • T cells: develop in the thymus
    • B cells: differentiate in fetal liver and adult bone marrow
    • NK cells: does not possess T cell or B cell receptors
  17. What are the characteristics of T Cells?
    • The definitive T cell marker is the cell antigen receptor (TCR)
    • TCR-1 (Composed of ϒ and Ϭ chains, 5%)
    • TCR-2 (Composed of α and β chains, 95%)
    • Both receptors are associated with a complex of polypeptides making up the CD3 complex.
  18. The TCR-2 cells are divided into two major subsets, what are they?
    • CD4+ (Helper T cells)
    • CD8+ (Cytotoxic T cells)
  19. CD4+ (Helper T cells) TCR-2 cells are divided into what subgroups?
    • CDw29+ (positively influence the immune response of T cells and B cells-the helper function)
    • CD45R+ (Induce cytotoxic function in CD8+ cells)
Card Set
Immuno - Lecture 1 - 1
Immuno - Lecture 1 - 1