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  1. What is newtons first law of motion
    an object in motion tends to stay in motion and an object at rest tends to stay at rest unless acted upon by an unbalanced force
  2. the formula for force is
    F = ma
  3. Newtons first law is also called what
    Law of inertia
  4. inertia is:
    the more ____   an object has the more inertia it has
    • the tendency of an objected to resist changes in its state of motion
    • mass
  5. what law states that all objects have inertia
    First law of sir isaac newton
  6. What is newtons second law
    force eqals mass times acceleration
  7. what is acceleration
    a measurement of how quickly an object is changing speed
  8. force is directly proportional to ____ and _____
    mass and acceleration
  9. what is newtons third law
    for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction
  10. what is kinetic energy
    what is potential energy
    the energy of motion like a rubberband flying through the air or water falling

    energy that is store in object which can be converted to kinetic energy like pulling a rubber has pt energy and flinging in air it now has kinetic energy (motion)
  11. what is the four paths that the film goes through while processing
    developer fixer washer dryer
  12. In the developer solution what is the function of the activator
    increases the ph of the solution; which causes gelatin to swell
  13. what is the function of the restrainer
    it limits the development of only the exposed silver halide crystals
  14. what four things are in the fixer solution
    • activator
    • clearing agent
    • hardener
    • preservative
  15. what does the activator do in the fixing solution
    stops developer action by drving down ph
  16. what does the hardner do in the fixing solution
    shrinks and hardens the emulsion
  17. What is a water spot
    an artifact that occurs as a result of replenishment rates being incorrect if the squeegee mechanism is defective or if the dryer is malfunctioning
  18. What is a slap line artifacts
    a plus density line perp to the direction of film travel that occurs near the trailing edge of the film
  19. what are pick off artifacts
    are small clear areas of the film where emulsion has flecked off the film base
  20. what are wet pressure mark artifacts
    occur when the pinch rollers apply too much or inconsistent pressure to the film in the developer or in the developer to fixer crossover racks
  21. what happens if developer concentration is too high
    overdevelopment occurs
  22. what does H & D stand for
    Hurter Driffield
  23. what is a sensitometer used for
    How does it do this
    where is it mainly used
    to expose film to a standardized range of light exposures

    It shines a light through an optical step tablet which is a sheet of film that has different density steps on it

    Darkroom only
  24. What is a densitometer
    measures the OD on a film
  25. What are 2 other names for the H&D curve
    characteristic curve and sensitometric curve
  26. what are the properties of the H&D curve (4)
    • Base plus fog
    • Speed
    • Contrast
    • Dmax
  27. why is the linear region important on an H&D curve
    this is the area for diagnostic range
  28. What is gamma when describing contrast on an H &D curve
    What are the ranges
    • is the maximum slope
    • 1.5-2.5
  29. What is the average gradient
    what is its range
    slope between points corresponding to max and min useful densities

  30. What three steps are part of the daily monitoring procedure
    • Expose a film with sensitometer
    • process film
    • measure data with densitometer
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