Physical Assessment

  1. anterior fontanelle molding
    • overriding of parietal bones as head passes through birth canal
    • resolves on its own
  2. caput succedanum
    • scalp swelling
    • collection of fluid under scalp, looks like a crown
    • can also block posterior fontanelle
    • resolves on its own in several days
  3. cephalohematoma
    • bleeding between periosteum and skull from pressure during birth
    • limited to one cranial bone, doesnt cross suture line
    • resolves on its own in about 1 month
  4. normal head circumference at birth
    • 32-38 cm
    • 1/4 of newborns length
    • 1/3 of their weight
  5. macrocephaly
    • large head size
    • can be WNL, familial
    • due to increased ICP before sutures close
  6. craniosynstosis
    • asymmetrical head shape due to premature closure of sutures
    • need surgery to correct
  7. dacrocystitis
    blocked tear duct: will see redness, discharge, swelling
  8. parachute reflex
    • around 8-9 months
    • if you drop the baby, they put their hands out in a parachute in front of them
  9. grasp reflex
    place finger in the babies hand and want them to hold your finger
  10. head lag
    • with baby laying down, hold their hand and slowly pull them into a sitting position
    • the head will lag behind the body until you get into a sitting position and it should straighten up
  11. hypotonia, hypertonia
    • both occur during the head lag reflex
    • hypo: baby will be floppy, muscles not flexed at all
    • hyper: muscles will be flexed, baby may look scrunched up
  12. doll's eye test
    you want the eyes to move as you move their head
  13. rooting reflex
    tests the trigeminal nerve, touch the side of their face and they should turn their head in that direction
  14. tonic neck reflex
    • turn head to the side, and their arm should straighten out in the direction the head is facing
    • will go away by the first year
  15. moro reflex
    • as you lower the child, hands are opened and C shaped, and their hands move in above them
    • damage to shoulder during birth may affect one arm
  16. startle reflex
    hit basinet/crib or make a noise and they will clench fists and bring them in front of their body
  17. Pediatric growth monitoring
    • birth-3yrs: length for age and weight for age
    • or head circumference for age and weight for length
    • at 2 yrs, head size is 2/3 adult size
  18. birth weight
    • doubles by 6 monhts
    • triples by 1 year
  19. newborn vitals
    • HR: 110-160
    • BP: 65-85/ 45-55
    • RR: 40-60
    • count HR and RR for a full minute
  20. innocent heart murmur
    • can resolve on its own
    • non-pathological
    • wont find any other symptoms
  21. PMI in peds
    • 4th intercostal space in children 7 or younger
    • 5th intercostal space
Card Set
Physical Assessment