# Electricity Glossary Terms Chapter 10

 Electricity -a form of energy that results from the interaction of charged particles, such as electrons of protons EXAMPLE: turning on a light or plugging in a toaster Static charge (Static Electricity) -an electric charge that tends to stay on the surface of an object, rather than flowing away quickly EXAMPLE: rubbing a balloon on your head and sticking it to a wall Charging By Friction -a process in which objects made from different materials rub against each other, producing a net static charge on each EXAMPLE: rubbing your feet across a carpet Electrostatic Series -a list of materials that have been arranged according to their ability to hold on to electrons Insulator -a material in which electrons cannot move easily from one atom to another EXAMPLE: glass, rubber, cotton etc Conductor -a material in which electrons can move easily between atoms EXAMPLE: metals (copper, steel, mercury, aluminum etc) Semiconductor -a material in which electrons can move fairly well between atoms EXAMPLE: non-metals (i.e. silicon) Ground -an object that can supply a very large number of electrons to, or can remove a very large number of electrons from, a charged object, thus neutralizing the object EXAMPLE: you can ground many kinds of charged objects by touching them as your fingers conduct electrons Electroscope -a device for detecting the presence of an electric charge EXAMPLE: metal leaf electroscope (Figure 1), pith ball electroscope (Figure 2)              FIGURE 1                         FIGURE 2 Charging By Contact -generating a charge on a neutral object by touching it with a charged object EXAMPLE: when a negatively charged rod comes in contact with a neutral pith ball there is a transfer of electrons causing the pith ball to become negatively charged and leaving the rod still negative or neutral Laws Of Electric Charges -laws that describe how two objects interact electrically when one or both are charged LAWS:1. Like charges repel2. Opposite charges attract3. Charged and neutral objects attract Electric Field -a property of the space around a charged object, where the effect of its charge can be felt by other objects Induced Charge Separation -the movement of electrons in a substance, caused by the electric field of a nearby charged object, without dire contact between the substance and the object EXAMPLE: when a negatively charged rod is brought near a neutral pith ball the electric field of the rod is strong enough to have an affect on the pith ball without actually making contact Ion -a charged atom or group of atoms NOTE: formed when charge is transferred (atoms gain or loose electrons) Lightning Rod -a metal sphere or point, attached to the highest part of a building and connected to the ground NOTE: important in rural areas where the highest buildings are houses and barns EXAMPLE: since lightning usually strikes the highest area in an area buildings will have lightning rods on top that is attached to the building and connected to the ground Electrostatic Precipitator -a type of cleaner that removes unwanted particles and liquid droplets from a flow of gas EXAMPLE: reduce pollution from smokestacks NOTE: invented in 1907 by Frederick Gardner Cottrell an American Physical Chemist, Inventor and Philanthropist Van De Graaff Generator -a device that accumulates very large charges EXAMPLE: uses a moving belt to accumulate very high amounts of electrical potential on a hollow metal globe on the top of the stand NOTE: invented by Robert J. Van de Graaff in 1929, it can accelerate particles to very high speeds and new subatomic particles are formed by this process Radiation Dosimeter -a small device that detects and measures exposure to radiation EXAMPLE: worn by astronauts so they are protected from radiation emitted from the sun AuthorMalloryHaggith ID284835 Card SetElectricity Glossary Terms Chapter 10 DescriptionElectricity Glossary Terms Chapter 10 Updated2014-10-12T23:26:31Z Show Answers