unit 6 brady vocab

  1. Genetics
    The science of heredity
  2. Allele
    alternative form that a single gene may have for a particular trait.
  3. Dominant
    Mendel's name for a specific trait that appeared in the F1 generation.
  4. Recessive
    Mendel's name for a specific trait hidden or masked in the F1 generation.
  5. Homozygous
    organism with two of the same alleles for a specific trait.
  6. Heterozygous
    organism with two different alleles for a specific trait.
  7. Genotype
    an organism's allele pairs
  8. Phenotype
    observable characteristic that is expressed as a result of an allele pair.
  9. Law of Segregation
    Mendelian law stating that two alleles for each trait separate during meiosis.
  10. Hybrid
    organism heterozygous for a specific trait
  11. Law of independent assortment
    Mendelian law stating that a random distribution of alleles occurs during the formation of gametes.
  12. Polyploidy
    the occurrence of one or more extra sets of all chromosomes in an organism.
  13. Carrier
    individual heterozygous for a recessive disorder such as cystic fibrosis or Tay-Sachs disease.
  14. Pedigree
    diagrammed family history that is used to study inheritance patterns of a trait through several generations and that can be used to predict disorders in future off-spring.
  15. Incomplete dominance
    complex inheritance pattern in which the hetereozygous phenotype is intermediate between those of the two homozygous parent organisims.
  16. Codominance
    complex inheritance pattern that occurs when neither allele is dominant and both alleles are expressed
  17. Sex chromosome
    X or Y chromosome; paired sex chromosomes determine an individual's gender - XX individuals are female and XY individuals are male
  18. Sex-linked trait
    characteristic, such as red-green color blindness, controlled by genes on the X chromosome; also called X-linked trait.
  19. Polygenic trait
    characteristic; such as eye color or skin color, that results from the interaction of multiple gene pairs.
  20. Karyotype
    micrograph in which the pairs of homologous chromosomes are arranged in decreasing size.
  21. Double helix
    twisted-ladder shape of DNA, formed by two nucleotide strands twisted around each other.
  22. DNA Replication
    the process of producing two identical replicas from one original DNA molecule.  This biological process occurs in all living organisms and is the basis for biological inheritance.
  23. Codon
    three base code in DNA and RNA
  24. Anticodon
    a unit made up of three nucleotides that correspond to the three bases of the codon on the mRNA.
  25. Messenger RNA
    type of RNA that carries genetic information from DNA in the nucleus to the direct protein synthesis in the cytoplasm.
  26. Ribosomal RNA
    type of RNA that associates with proteins to form ribosomes
  27. RNA
    ribonucleic acid; guides protein synthesis
  28. Transfer RNA
    type of RNA that transports amino acids to the ribosome.
  29. Transcription
    process in which mRNA is synthesized from the template DNA
  30. Translation
    process in which mRNA attaches to the ribosome and a protein is assembled.
  31. Mutagen
    substance, such as a chemical, that causes mutations.
  32. Mutation
    permanent change in a cell's DNA, ranging from changes in a single base pair to deletions of large sections of chromosomes.
  33. Cloning
    process in which large numbers of identical recombinant DNA molecules are produced.
  34. Transgenic organism
    organism that is genetically engineered by inserting a gene from another organism.
  35. Genetic engineering
    technology used to manipulate an organism's DNA by inserting the DNA of another organism.
  36. DNA fingerprinting
    separating an individual's unique sequence of DNA fragments to observe distinct banding patterns; can be used by forensic scientists to identify suspects and determine paternity.
Card Set
unit 6 brady vocab
unit 6 brady vocab