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  1. Definition of social perception
    Study of how we form impressions and make inferences about other people
  2. What 3 types of information do we rely on?
    -nonverbal communication

    -verbal communication

    -physical appearance
  3. How are 4 ways we use nonverbal communication?
    -express emotions

    -convey attitudes

    -communicate personality traits

    -facilitate/modify verbal communication
  4. Which 7 emotions and expressions are thought to be universal?






  5. Is scent a non verbal cue?
    When ovulation, testosterone levels were higher
  6. Verbal cues and non verbal communication
    Verbal cues have been shown to have attached meanings
  7. When schemas are applied to people,
    They are called stereotypes
  8. Schemas and first impressions
    Participants watches person take an oral exam. Test taker is rated more intelligent when he started out doing well than poorly

    *shows the power of first impressions
  9. Attribution theories
    Theories that try to investigate the ways that people explain the causes of one's own and other behaviro
  10. 2 type of attributions
    • -internal attirbutions
    • *dispositional

    • -external attirbutions
    • *situational
  11. How do people decide to make internal vs external attributions? (3)
    -consensus information

    -distinctiveness information

    -consistency information
  12. How people decide to make internal vs external attributions) what is consensus information?
    Whether other behave in same way as our actor did

    *he sucks at selling today
  13. How people decide to make internal vs external attributions) what is distinctiveness information?
    Whether same actor behaves in same way given different stimuli/situations.

    Ex) is he always good at selling?
  14. How people decide to make internal vs external attributions) what is consistency information?
    Whether the behavior between oura actor and the same stimuli is the same across time/context

    *is he always good at selling?"
  15. What is one reason we commit fundamental attribution of error?
    Actor observer effects
  16. What is actor oberserve effects?
    Actors notice the situation around them and how they re affected by the situation while observers do not.
  17. Study on actor observe effects in attribution ?
    2 people had conversation sitting around observers looking at them (2 on one person, 2 at both, 2 on the other person). Observers made more attributions to the dispositions (personality traits) of the person they were facing (he didn't talk bc he is shy). Conversationalists made more situational attributions about themselves (I was talkative bc my partner was quiet, I didn't talk much bc I was nervous about the camera).
  18. Main viewpoint about objective bias
    People generally believe that others behavior reflects their personality (disposition)
  19. example of Rosa parks seat
    People that sat on Rosa parks seat were highly criticized, often called racist for not showing respect to the seat. In reality, most passengers were not racist, they just didn't see the sign
  20. (attribution) Self serving biases
    We make explanations for our successes that credit internal dispositional factors while our explanations for our failures blame external situational factors

    *we take credit for positive outcomes and avoid blame for negative outcomes
  21. Self serving biases) better than average effect?
    Most of us see ourselves as above average on many dimensions
  22. What 2 purposes do self serving biases in attribution serve?-
    -ego enhancing

    -self esteem protecting and maintaining
  23. Are there people that lack self serving biases? (2)
    -depressed individuals

    -low self esteem
  24. What is the primary line of thought process with defensive attributions
    Good things happens to good people

    *if bad things haoppen to good people then psychological tension arises
  25. (defensive attributions) what can result for people who experience negative outcomes
    Can result in internal attirbutions

    *it is her fault for getting raped,
  26. What is self-handicapping?
    • Do something in advance that could explain away any potential faiklure
    • *hinder your own performance in advance of a competition or test to have something to blame
  27. Why do we self handicap?
    We got to extremes to make external attributions for our failures

    *win/win situation bc if they do bad well they have something to blame but if they do well even better
  28. 3 things to consider about self handicaaping
    -observers can detect self handicapping in others

    -observers dislike self handicappers and infer that they do have low ability

    -can also increase the probability of failure
  29. Questions from last exam) according to self perception theory, Jessica is friends with Hillary because...
    She spends a lot of time with hillary

    • *it validates the persons behavior
    • Ex) I ate so much perhaps its because I was hungry
  30. Questions from last exam) ben Franklin effect?
    Do something nice for someone means you like the person
  31. Questions from last exam) People tend to assume that they see the world as it really is and that anyone who disagrees with them is biased and not eeing the whole picture. They call this phenomenon
    Naïve realism

    *if anyone disagrees with you, they are missing something. You have to enlighten them
  32. Questions from last exam) _________________ accounts for responses when a person has vague or uncertain attitudes, whereas __________ accounts for responses when a person as well-defined and attitudes
    Self perception theory; cognitive dissonance theory

    *self perception theory= not strong belief so we look at our behavior to validate it

    * cognitive dissonance theory= strong held beliefs
  33. Questions from last exam) the ben Franklin effect is evidenced that..
    Behavior affects our beliefs

    • *I let someone borrow a book, then I must like the person
    • *behavior validates our beliefs
  34. Questions from last exam) according to the social cognition approach, people are motivated to...
    Make accurate predictions and understand the social world
  35. What's Muhammad Ali effect?
    Maybe I'm not smart but I can kick your ass
  36. Study on self serving biases
    Students overclaimed their contributions when success occurred bu underclaimed when failure occurred.
  37. Book) social perception
    Study of how we form impressions of other people and how we make influences about them
  38. Book) which type of nonverbal communication is the imost important?
    Facial experessions
  39. Book) what are the 6 major emotional expressions that are universal






    *pride also shown to be universal
  40. Book) implicit personality theory
    Our ideas about what kinds of personality traits go together
  41. Book) implicit personality theory: which 2 impressions do we usually use for people?
    -warmth and competence
  42. Book) definition of attribution theory?
    Study of how we infer the causes of other peoples behavior
  43. Book) what is internal attribution?
    • explanation that assigns the causes of his behavior internally
    • *trait, disposition
  44. Book) what is external attribution?
    • Person is behaving this way bc they are influenced
    • *situational

    Ex) father is seen shouting at daughter. Using this rationale, it would be daughter is doing something dangerous
  45. Book) what is covariation model?
    You will examine multiple instances of behavior occurring at different times and situations

    *ask friend for something, they say no. You start thinking about other scenarios to figure out why she said no
  46. Book) consensus information
    • How do other people behave toward the same stimulus
    • *do others yell at Hannah?
  47. Book) distinctiveness information
    How does the actor respond to other stimuli?

    *does he yell at other people?
  48. Book) consistency information
    • Frequency with which the observed behavior between the actor and same stimulus occurs across time and circumstances
    • *does boss yell at Hannah frequently ?
  49. Book) What is a huge error that fundamental attribution error creates?
    To dismiss external factors that the person is in bc behavior is more noticeable than situation
  50. Book) what's perceptual salience?
    We can't see situation so we ignore it. We pay attention to person we do see though.

    *study on groups surrounding 2 speakers
  51. Book) what is bias blind spot?
    Tendency to think others are more susceptible to attributional biases than us
  52. Book) definition of defensive attirbutions
    explanation for behavior that defend us from feeling of vulnerability and mortality

    *belief in just worlds=people get what they deserved
  53. Book) why do people use defensive attributions?
    The person does not have to acknowledge that bad things can occur at random times
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Social perception part 1
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