Nursing 110 - Module I

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  1. Acute vs Chronic Illness
    Acute Illnesses

    • Rapidly occurring & run their course
    • Person is able to return to previous level of functioning

    Chronic Illness

    Irreversible Illness that causes permanent physical impairment

    Requires long term healthcare
  2. Advanced Directives
    Written directives that allows people to state in advance what their choices for healthcare would be if certain circumstances should develop
  3. Assault vs Battery

    Threat or attempt to make bodily contact with another person without that person’s permission                      

    • Not allowing patient to have dinner until they do xyz
    • Threatening to disrobe a patient if he/she does not want to            

    Battery - An assault that is carried out
  4. Autonomy
    Self-determination, being independent, self-governing
  5. Beneficence

    Principle of doing good
  6. Confidentiality

    Respecting privileged information
  7. Crime vs Tort
    • Crime
    • Violation punishable by the state
    • Often an offense against people or property
    • But considered an offense to the public as well       
    • Referred in court as “the people vs John Doe”

    • Tort
    • A wrong committed by a person against another person (or his/her property)

    • Action is taken in civil court
    • Damages are settled with money
    • Referred in court as “Jane Doe vs John Doe”
  8. Felony vs Misdemeanor
    • Misdemeanor
    • Less serious crime than a felony
    • Commonly punishable with fines or less than 1 year in prison

    • Felony
    • Crime punishable by imprisonment by the state or federal courts of more than 1 year

    A crime of greater offense than a misdemeanor
  9. Culture

    Sum total of human behavior or social characteristics peculiar to a specific group& passed down from generation to generation                                   

    Guides what is acceptable behavior for situations                                   

    Learned by each new generation thru formal & informal experiences                       

    Arise from group’s social & physical environment     

    Influences view of oneself, expectations, & how to respond to situations
  10. Sub-Culture
    Large group of people who are members of even larger cultural group

    Nurses are subculture of healthcare group

    Teens & elderly are subculture of general population
  11. Do Not Resuscitate (DNR)
    An order specifying that there is to be no attempt to resuscitate the patient in event of cardiopulmonary arrest
  12. Power of Attorney & Durable Power of Attorney
    • Power of Attorney
    • Authorization to represent or act on anther's behalf in private affairs, business, or some other legal matter                

    • Durable Power of Attorney
    • Can represent interests after one is incapacitated
    • (mental illness, life support, dementia, Alzheimer’s) until death
  13. Fraud vs Defamation

    • Defamation (of Character)
    • Intentional tort in which one party makes derogatory remarks about another in order to diminish the party’s reputation 

    • Fraud
    • Willful & purposeful misrepresentation that could or has caused loss orharm to people or property
  14. Informed Consent
    Knowledgeable, voluntary, permission obtained from a patient to perform a specific test or procedure
  15. Liability
    • Legal responsibility for one’s actions or failure to act                        
    • Includes responsibility for financial restitution of harms resulting from negligent acts
  16. Living Will
    Advance directive specifying the medical care a person would want or refuse should he/she lack capacity to consent to or refuse treatment him / herself
  17. Malpractice
    Act of negligence as applied to a professional person (physician, nurse, dentist)
  18. Negligence
    Performing an act that a reasonably prudent person under similar circumstances would not do

    Failing to perform an act that a reasonably prudent person under similar circumstances would do
  19. Non-maleficence
    Principle of avoiding evil
  20. Research
    Process that uses observable & verifiable info (data), collected in asystemic manner,to describe, explain, or predict events
  21. Basic Human Needs
    Essential to health & survival of humans            Common to all people
  22. Physiologic Needs
    Need for oxygen, food, water, temperature, elimination, sexuality, activity, rest

    Highest priority

    Essential for survival
  23. Safety & Security Needs
    Need to be protected from actual (or potential) harm

    To have freedom from fear
  24. Self-Actualization Needs
    Need for one to reach their full potential thru development of unique capabilities

    Highest level on hierarchy of needs
  25. Self-Esteem Needs
    • The need to feel good about oneself            
    • To believe that others hold one in high regard
  26. Sentinel Event
    An unexpected occurrence involving death or serious physical or psychological injury, or risk thereof
  27. Statutory Law
    Law enacted by legislative body
  28. Veracity
    Truth telling
  29. Morbidity vs Mortality
    • Morbidity
    • The frequency that a disease occurs

    • Mortality
    • The number of deaths
  30. What is learning? Difference between Affective & Cognitive Learning
    • Learning
    • Increasing one’s knowledge; having one’s behavior changed in a measurable way
    • as result of an experience

    • Affective Learning
    • Changes in attitude, values, & feelings

    • Cognitive Learning
    • Storing & recalling of new knowledge in the brain
  31. Empathy vs Sympathy


    • Empathy
    • Intellectually identifying with the way another person feels            

    • Sympathy
    • Being able to relate to someone because you have experienced what they have gone thru
  32. Health Literacy
    Ability to read, understand, and act on health information
  33. Helping Relationship
    Interaction that sets the climate of movement of the participants toward common goals

    Example - Nurse & patient
  34. Interpersonal vs Intrapersonal Communication

    • Interpersonal
    • Communication that occurs between two or more people with a goal to exchange messages

    • Intrapersonal
    • Communication to oneself
  35. Language
    Prescribed way of using words, a means to express thoughts & feelings
  36. Message
    Term used in communication theory to denote the actual physical product of the source or encoder

    (a speech, interview, phone conversation, chart)
  37. Verbal vs Nonverbal Communication
    • Verbal Communication
    • Exchange of information using words

    • Nonverbal Communication
    • Exchange of information without using words
  38. Professionalism
    • An occupation that meets specific criteria
    • including a well-defined body of specific & unique knowledge, a code of ethics & standards, ongoing research, & autonomy
  39. Rapport
    Feeling of mutual trust experienced by people in satisfactory relationship
  40. Receiver (Decoder) vs Source (Encoder)
    • Receiver (Decoder)
    • The person or object to which the message is directed

    • Source (Encoder)
    • One who prepares & sends message to receiver
  41. SBAR
    Consistent, clear, structured, & easy-to-use method of communication between healthcare personnel 

    Organizes communication between healthcare personnel

  42. Therapeutic Touch (TT)
    An alternative therapy that involves using one’s hands to consciously direct an energy exchange from the practitioner to the patient to facilitate healing or pain relief
  43. What are the 4 broad aims of nursing practice?
    • Promote Health
    • Prevent Illness
    • Restore Health
    • Facilitate Coping with disability or Death
  44. Ethnicity vs Race
    • Ethnicity is a sense of identification with collective cultural group
    • (share social beliefs, language, etc.)

    • Based on specific physical characteristics
    • (skin color, facial features, hair)
  45. Health vs Wellness
    • Heath is a state of physical, mental, social well being
    • It is not just the absence of disease
    • Defined by now one feels

    Wellness is an active state of being able to a lifestyle that promotes good physical, mental, emotional health

    Patient who has many chronic conditions but can still perform ADLs
  46. Who were the first nurses in history?
    Religious people of convents & monasteries
  47. Nurse who promoted mental health
    Dorothea Dix
  48. Linda Richards
    1st professionally trained American nurse

    Created the first system for keeping individual medical records for hospitalized patients
  49. Nurse started Red Cross
    Clara Barton
  50. Mary Adelaide Nutting
    Considered the world's first Professor of Nursing
  51. first 1st African American professionally trained nurse in the United States, graduating in 1879
    Mary Eliza Mahoney
  52. What are the steps to the nursing process
    • 5 Steps
    • Assess patient
    • Determine a nursing diagnosis
    • Identify plan of care & expected outcome
    • Implement the care
    • Evaluate the outcome of the plan

    • aka ADPIE
    • (Assess, Diagnose, Plan, Implement, Evaluate)
  53. Three methods for collecting
    • Observation
    • Interview (patient history)
    • Assessment
  54. Tiers of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
    • Physiological
    • Safety & Security
    • Love & Belonging
    • Self-Esteem
    • Self-Actualization
  55. Disease vs Illness
    • Disease
    • Medical term defines pathological change in function

    • Illness
    • Response of person to that disease
    • Different from person to person

    A person may have a disease, but able to do ADLs so they are in a state of wellness (not illness)
  56. What are the levels of preventive care?
    • Primary
    • Promoting health
    • Preventing disease, injury
    • Immunizations
    • Take parenting classes
    • Eat healthy
    • Practice safe sex

    • Secondary
    • Early detection & prompt intervention
    • Goal to reverse / reduce severity
    • Mamograms
    • blood screening
    • Routine physicals
    • Family counseling

    • Tertiary
    • Begins after illness is diagnosed & treated
    • Educate patient about how to monitor & control it
    • Self support groups
    • OT, PT, cardiac rehab
  57. What are the Phases of a Patient Interview?
    • Preparation Phase
    • Look at old records
    • Create right environment

    • Introduction Phase
    • Introduce self
    • State reason for interview

    • Working Phase
    • Gather info to create subjective database

    • Termination Phase
    • Recap, highlight
    • Alert patient about what is to happen next
  58. Talk about Medicare
    For citizens 65+ and permanently disabled (and their dependents)

    Reimbursement is on a fixed amount based on diagnosis or procedure

    Preventable errors are not reimbursed (bed sores, injuries from falls, infections from urinary catheters)

    • Medicare Part A
    • Pays for hospital costs
    • Financed by federal government

    • Medicare Part B
    • Voluntary & has monthly premium
    • Pays for office visits, meds, home health services

    Changes annually because it is tied to the federal budget
  59. Talk about Medicaid
    • Funded jointly by federal & state governments
    • Managed by state (coverage will vary by state)
    • For those of low income
  60. What are the 4 elements that must be met to prove liability
    • Duty
    • Breach of Duty
    • Causation
    • Damages

    What was this person's duty and how was it breached? Did this breach cause the injury / problem in question.
  61. What are the 5 Types of Nursing Diagnoses?
    • Actual
    • Risk
    • Possible
    • Wellness
    • Syndrome
  62. High white blood count means
  63. Low red blood count means
  64. High red blood count means
  65. Low hemoglobin labs mean
  66. High hematocrit means
  67. Arterial Blood Gas is used for what?
    Measures gas components in arterial blood

    Measures pH of blood

    Reflect quality of ventilation & perfusion
  68. How to collect for cytologic study (collecting sputum)
    Best to collect in morning

    It is usually a serial collection

    Inhale & cough deeply

    Usually 1tsp of sputum is required
  69. Bronchoscopy
    • Used to
    • view lesions
    • obtain a biopsy
    • improve drainage
    • remove foreign substances
    • drain abscesses

    Withhold food until gag reflux returns
  70. Lung Scan
    • Measures integrity of pulmonary blood vessels
    • Evaluate blood flow abnormalities
    • Detect ventilation abnormalities
Card Set
Nursing 110 - Module I
Intro to Nursing
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