Chapter 3

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  1. Biodiversity
    The number and variety of organisms found in a specific region
  2. Protect
    To legally guard from harm a species that is listed as endangered, threatened, or of special concern

    e.g. to protect the whooping crane from extinction.
  3. Biodiversity hotspot
    A place where there is an exceptionally large number of species in a relatively small area

    e.g. The Leitrim Wetlands in Ontario is a biodiversity hotspot. It has more than 200 species of plants and 90 of birds.
  4. Community
    All the populations of the different species that interact in a specific area or ecosystem

    e.g. Fish, coral and sponges make up a community.
  5. Dominant species
    The species that is so abundant that has the biggest biomass of any community member

    e.g. American chestnut trees used to be dominant species before a fungus wiped most of them out.
  6. Keystone species
    A species that can greatly affect population numbers and the health of an ecosystem

    e.g. Sea otters are keystone species because if their numbers drop the amount of sea urchins will increase. The urchins will eat the kelp and then any species that relies on kelp will have a decline in biomass.
  7. Captive breeding
    The breeding of rare or endangered wildlife can control settings to increase the population size

    e.g. breeding the black-footed ferret so that the population increases.
  8. Ecosystem engineer
    A species that causes such dramatic changes to landscapes that it creates a new ecosystem

    e.g. A beaver building a dam and turning a stream into a pond for amphibians, birds, and fish.
  9. Succession
    The series of changes in ecosystems that occurs over time following a disturbance

    e.g. A beaver's dam turning a forest into a flooded forest, into a pond, into a beaver meadow
  10. Habitat loss
    The distraction of habitats, which usually results from human activities

    E.g. Deforestation in places like saskatchewan.
  11. Deforestation
    The practice of clearing forests for logging or other human uses, and never replanting them

    e.g. Boreal plains in the prairie provinces being cut down.
  12. Alien species
    A species that is accidentally or deliberately introduced to a new location, usually as a result of human activity

    e.g. Round goby in the great lakes.
  13. Invasive species
    A species that can take over the habitat of native species or invade their bodies

    e.g. Zebra mussels in the great lakes.
  14. Overexploitation
    They use or extraction of a resource until it is depleted

    e.g. Overfishing of the atlantic cod.
  15. Extinction
    The death of all the individuals of a species

    e.g. The dodo bird.
  16. Biodiversity crisis
    The current accelerated rate of extinctions on earth

    e.g. current day; with lots of habitat loss and polution manu species are at a risk of extinction.
  17. Restoration ecology
    The renewal of degraded or destroyed because systems through active human intervention

    e.g. Restoring the don valley brick works to a natural environment.
  18. Reforestation
    The regrowth of a forest, either through the planting of seeds or trees in an area where a forest was cut down

    e.g. Replanting red pines in deforested areas in canada.
  19. Biocontrol
    The use of a species to control the population growth or spread of an undesirable species

    e.g. Releasing the a parasitoid (european fly) to control the gypsy moth population.
  20. Bioremediation
    The use of living organisms to clean up contaminated areas naturally

    e.g. Plants being grown at toxic sites to absorb poisons and improve the soil quality.
  21. Bioaugmentation
    The use of organisms to add essential nutrients to depleted soils

    e.g. Clover being grown in feilds to increase nitrogen levels.
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Chapter 3
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