csp final

  1. what percentage of single parent families are headed by women?
  2. what are actual causes of childrens problems in divorce? (not fatherless)
    • economic hardships
    • lack of parental supervison
    • parental alienation syndrome
  3. current state of non marital births?
    • increasing among adults
    • less social stigma
    • high among low income
    • 1/3 of all US births
  4. trend of teenage pregnancy
    • overall decline
    • increase in out of wedlock
  5. describe cycle of poverty
    pregnancy-less education-lifetime poverty-teenage pregnancy in next generation-infant disabilities
  6. why are low income women more likely to give birth out of wedlock and remain single?
    • men with less or no money
    • expectation of increased burden
    • want to marry if it leads to financial stability
  7. what is child abuse?
    physical or mental injury of a child by a person who is supposed to be responsible for the childs welfare
  8. what is the most frequent form of child abuse?
  9. what is intimate partner violence?
    violence between intimate couples
  10. what is the porportion of women among intimate partner violence?
  11. five factors in domestic violence
    • misuse of physical punishment
    • social isolation
    • alcohol used as excuse
    • coming from an abusive family
    • poverty-stress-aggression
  12. is there a direct causal relationship of family violence and alcohol, coming from an abusive family, poverty?
  13. define crime
    recognized violation of legal statute
  14. define law
    norms formalized by the political authority
  15. two major categories of crime
    misdemeanors, felonies
  16. what are the three types of crime statistics?
    • UCR
    • National Crime Victimization Survey
    • Self Report Offender Surveys
  17. Explain the UCR
    Index crimes- murder, rape, robbery, assault, burglary, auto theft, arson, larceny

    Non Index crimes - all others

    # of crimes committed per 100,000 population

    steady decline since 1992

    Shortcomings- reported not equal to committed, emphasis on crimes involving violence and property,
  18. explain National crime victims survey
    conducted by DOJ

    100,000 random households

    victims background, relationship to offender, degree of harm, 7/10 go unreported

    shortcomings - less reliable data on offenders, responses based on recall, truthful?, no data on victimless crimes
  19. explain self report offender survey
    • population w/ known police record
    • society's selection of criminals
  20. define index crimes & non index crimes
    Index - murder, rape, robbery, burglary, auto theft, arson, larceny, assault

    Non Index - all others
  21. define crime rate
    number of index crimes per 100,000 pop
  22. define crime clock
    how often index crimes are committed
  23. two major factors in the recent decline of crime rate?
    demography- less % of people less than 26 yoa

    Expansion of economy
  24. four index crimes that are "violent crimes"
    murder, rape, robbery, assault
  25. profile of victims and offenders of violent crimes
    male-young-black-intra-racial crimes- lower social class - unemployed - urban - family members
  26. victims and offenders of burglary
    • blacks and hispanics
    • lower class
    • rental property
    • urban
    • offenders are in teens to early twenties
  27. what is identity theft?
    use of someones ID to obtain credit
  28. what is white collar crime?
    fraud, identity theft, embezzelment,

    committed by mid & upper class
  29. define occupational crime
    • committed by people in the course of their employment or normal business activity
    • motivated by individual gain
  30. define corporate crime
    • committed by corporate employees on behalf of the corporation and with it's support
    • interest in max profit at the expense of consumers, employees, and society
  31. three negative consequences of white collar crime?
    • great economic impact = or > street crimes
    • social disruption and instability
    • harmful to health and environment
  32. define victimless crime
    no one suffers directly, a legislation of morality
  33. two functions of decriminalization
    • cost managment (45-50k per prisoner)
    • stimulates organized crime
  34. Four functions of the criminal justice system and which serves the basis of the system?
    deterrence, incapacitation, rehabilitation, retribution

  35. describe the concept of rational choice
    • behavior based on individual choice / free will
    • deterred when perception of cost > reward
  36. what is punishment?
    delivery of aversive consequences in order to decrease some behavior
  37. two conditions under which punishment becomes more effective?
    • must be severe, swift, and consistent
    • must be perceived as fair- w/i norms and equally applied- otherwise anger and resentment
  38. five problems with harsher punishments (get tough measures)
    • clogged system
    • crowded prisons
    • provide learning opportunities
    • not aversive to career criminals
    • impossible to measure deterrence rate
  39. what is incapacitation and it's purpose?
    imposing restrictions on freedom of offender

    lower recidivism rates
  40. what is rehabilitation and its purpose?
    reforming the offender by providing the skills and attitudes that make returning to a law abiding life possible

    promoting reintegration
  41. define retribution
    application of revenge on behalf of the victim
  42. define restitution
    paying for the damage
  43. how does strain theory explain deviance?
    crime is outcome of imbalance in social system
  44. explain conformity
    legitimate means for acceptable cultural goals
  45. explain innovation
    illegitimate means for acceptable cultural goals
  46. explain ritualism
    compulsive adherence to legitimate means without goals
  47. explain retreatism
    withdrawal from goals and means (homeless people)
  48. explain rebellion
    pursuit of non conventional goals with non conventional means
  49. how does control theory explain deviance?
    humans are deviant by default - we come to conform to rules by bonding with society
  50. four sources of bonding to society?
    • attachement - affection to others
    • committment - the stake you have in society
    • involvment - busy in conventional activities
    • belief - sharing values and morals with others
  51. how does labeling theory explain deviance?
    deviance is by social construction
  52. four steps in labeling process
    • primary deviance - initial norm violation
    • labeling - imposition of deviant identity
    • stigmatizaion - public derogation, blocking opportunities to play legitimate roles
    • self fulfilling prophecy - you behave the way others expect you to behave
    • secondary deviance - persistent deviant behavior
    • retrospective labeling - reinterpretation of past behavior based on present label
  53. why youth unemployment leads to urban crime according to strain theory?
    youth unemployment leads to cultural dislocation by blocking of legitimate economic opportunities
  54. most significant factor behind high incarceration rate?
    drug sentencing- drug related offenses defined as felonies
  55. what is medicalization?
    treating drug use as a health issue and not a crime
  56. three stages for gaining and restoring social order?
    • policing coupled with community involvment - community friendly policing
    • restoration of social disorganization - urban decay and disorder
    • opening opportunity structure - education and full employment policies
Card Set
csp final
csp final