1. The overall practical political purpose of the court of Versailles was to?
    exclude the high nobility and royal princes from real power. Versailles served the political function of successfully excluding the high nobility and royal princes from their accustomed positions of power. By bringing them to Versailles and involving them in extensive and elaborate ceremonies, Louis was able to maintain his central control, as well as better ensure domestic peace and order in France.
  2. Jacques Bossuet's Politics Drawn from the Very Words of Holy Scripture. What was his claim?
    He claimed that a king's authority and power were revocable under the law of God. Bossuet (1627–1704) was a product of his own age. In the seventeenth century, monarchies were the norm, as they had been in the past. Throughout history, many monarchs had justified their position as having been selected or chosen by the Gods or God. In seventeenth-century England, the Stuart kings would have also claimed that divine right sanctioned their rule.
  3. Ronald Reagan and Mikhail Gorbachev had their GREATEST impact on their era by collectively
    ending the Cold War.
  4. Yugoslavia was divided into warring factions because of?
    demands for ethnic separatism. Yugoslavia came into existence as a result of World War I. It was an artificial creation, made up of several different "nationalities" or ethnic groups. After World War II, the ideology of communism and the leadership of Marshall Tito held the state together, but after his death in 1980 and the demise of communism at the end of the 1980s, different ethnic groups demanded their own states. The dominant Serbs tried to prevent the disintegration but failed in spite of war and "ethnic cleansing."
  5. "Small" wars like the United States' involvement in Vietnam and the Soviet Union in Afghanistan demonstrated that?
    there would be wars that the superpowers could not win against a strong nationalist and guerilla type opposition.
  6. In her path-breaking text, The Second Sex, the influential French feminist author Simone de Beauvoir argued that?
    as a result of male-dominated societies, women were always and wrongly defined by their differences from men and consequently seen as second-class beings. In 1949, Simone de Beauvoir published The Second Sex, one of the seminal works in the women's liberation movement in Europe and America. De Beauvoir claimed that males dominated most societies and women thus invariably had only second-class status that was defined by their differences from men.
  7. An overall effect of the Korean War on the Cold War was?
    the reinforcement of the American determination to "contain" Soviet power. The Korean War began in June 1950 when communist North Korea invaded South Korea. The United States and the United Nations responded in a conflict that did not end until a truce in 1953, with North Korean forces driven out of the south and the truce line established at approximately the 1950 border between the two states. The American assumption was that the Soviet Union had authorized the North Korean invasion, thus repelling the communists and keeping South Korean free was seen as a victory for the American policy of containment.
  8. World War II not only devastated the countries, cities, peoples, and cultures of Europe, but also destroyed?
    European supremacy in world affairs. Beginning in the sixteenth century, the states of Europe dominated much of the world. From the western hemisphere to Africa and throughout Asia, it was the Age of the West. By the end of the nineteenth century, the nations of Europe had "carved up" much of Africa, established spheres of influence in China, and created empires everywhere, not least the British Empire. However, the world wars of the twentieth century weakened European hegemony, and by the end of World War II, Europe had lost its supremacy in world affairs.
  9. One of the chief concerns of the Allies at the Tehran, Yalta, and Potsdam Conferences was?
    determining spheres of influence for the individual allied powers in post-war Europe. One of the major issues of the three Allied conferences (Tehran in 1943, Yalta in February 1945, and the post-European war conference at Potsdam in July 1945) was spheres of influence. Stalin was adamant about having a buffer zone in Eastern Europe to protect the Soviet Union, and Churchill agreed that spheres of influence might help in preventing future conflicts. Roosevelt vacillated, and at Yalta he favored self-determination. By July 1945, Roosevelt was dead, and Russia and the West were rapidly drifting apart—the Cold War had begun
  10. The Nazi Empire was?
    never organized systematically or governed efficiently despite German claims to the contrary. Hitler's Nazi empire encompassed Europe from the English Channel in the west to near Moscow in the east. Parts of the empire, including western Poland, were annexed directly to Germany, but German civilian or military officials, often supported by local collaborationists, administered most of the continent. The German empire suffered competing lines of authority between various military and civilian bodies and was not administered either efficiently or systematically.
  11. After the attack on Pearl Harbor, the MAIN priority for the United States was?
    defeating Germany first and then turning its great naval war machine against Japan. Shortly after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, Hitler declared war against the United States. Before Pearl Harbor, there was much isolationist sentiment in the United States against getting involved in the war in Europe, which had begun in September 1939. President Roosevelt agreed with Britain's Winston Churchill and the Soviet Union's Joseph Stalin that the defeat of Germany was the first priority. Then, the American navy could be employed in the Pacific against Japan.
  12. The British policy of appeasement was based on?
    a mistaken belief that it would maintain peace and stability in Europe. When Hitler demanded that the German-speaking area in Czechoslovakia known as the Sudetenland be turned over to Germany, the British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain and the French Premier went to Munich to meet Hitler. In order to avoid another world war and in the hope that it would result in peace and stability, the British and the French signed the Munich agreement, which gave Hitler what he wanted and resulted in the dismemberment of Czechoslovakia. Chamberlain claimed the agreement meant "peace for our time." World War II broke out within a year.
  13. World War II was largely made more likely by?
    In 1935, Adolph Hitler announced that Germany had rearmed in violation of the Versailles Treaty. The next year, he ordered German troops to reoccupy the demilitarized Rhineland. British and French politicians voiced opposition but did not act forcefully to oppose Hitler's actions. The economic depression and the millions of losses in World War I deterred the democratic governments from a strong response—better peace at any price.
  14. Salvador Dali's The Persistence of Memory is an example of?
    Surrealism. Salvador Dali's Persistence of Memory is an example of Surrealism, an important artistic movement between the two world wars. Surrealists such as Dali were influenced by the ideas of Sigmund Freud and emphasized the unconscious as having a greater reality than the conscious state. In this painting, Dali portrays a world of dreams by placing recognizable objects in unrecognizable relationships.
  15. Walter Gropius was BEST known for his?
    ideas of functionalism and practicality in architecture. Walter Gropius was one of the most influential architects of the twentieth century. A founder of the Bauhaus School of art and design in 1919 and located in Germany's Weimar, Gropius' own structures were guided by the principle of functionalism. Form should follow function, and his buildings were often unornamented steel boxes with windows.
  16. The Spanish Civil War ended with the victory of?
    General Francisco Franco, who established a conservative, authoritarian, and anti-democratic regime with the strong backing of the reactionary Spanish Catholic Church. The Spanish republic was established in 1931. In 1936, a Popular Front government of democrats, socialists, and the revolutionary left, assumed power, but was unacceptable to many military officers. General Francisco Franco led a rebellion against the republic. The Spanish Civil War (1936–1939) resulted in Franco's victory and the establishment of an authoritarian regime that was supported by large landowners, business interests, and the conservative Catholic clergy.
  17. "Strength Through Joy" What was it?
    It was one of the most effective Nazi propaganda films to be made by German actors, producers, and directors corrupted by Hitler's ideology. The Nazis' "Strength Through Joy" (Kraft durch Freude) program was to coordinate and monitor the leisure time of German workers by offering a number of activities such as concerts, packaged tours, and sporting events. As in Fascist Italy's Dopolavoro program, the aim of "Strength Through Joy" was to break down older group solidarities and identities and allow the state more control and direction over the individuals in society.
  18. Women in Mussolini's Fascist Italy were?
    largely forced by government legislation to become homemakers. According to Italian fascist philosophy, the family was the pillar of society and the only proper role for a woman was that of homemaker, "their natural and fundamental mission in life." According to Mussolini, female emancipation was by definition "unfascist." Like Italy, the Soviet Union was also a totalitarian state, but there women did more than their share of physical labor outside the home and in the work force.
  19. The first Fascist state in Europe was?
    Italy. The first Fascist state in Europe was Italy. In 1919, Benito Mussolini organized the first fascist political movement. In the confusion and disillusionment in post-war Italy, and through threats and terror, Mussolini coerced King Victor Emmanuel III to appoint him Prime Minister in October 1922.
  20. An overall effect of the Great Depression in Europe was?
    the rise of authoritarian movements in many areas of Europe. Politically, the Great Depression led to the rise of authoritarian movements in many parts of Europe. Constitutional democracy seemed to have failed to either prevent the economic collapse or end it. Capitalism had apparently failed. Some were attracted to Marxism as an alternative, but totalitarian fascism also had a great appeal as evidenced in the coming to power of Adolph Hitler in 1933. In Eastern Europe, only Czechoslovakia could be called a democratic state in the 1930s.
  21. The period of 1924–1929 in Europe witnessed?
    a growing feeling of optimism for a peaceful future. The years 1924 to 1929 were "the hopeful years." In Germany, a new government headed by Gustav Stresemann and a solution to Germany's hyperinflation through the Dawes Plan stabilized the economy. Increasing prosperity led to new diplomatic initiatives. In 1925, France, Belgium, and Germany agreed to Germany's new post-war western borders in the Treaty of Locarno. The following year Germany entered the League of Nations. In 1928, sixty-three nations signed the Kellogg-Briand Pact that outlawed war as an instrument of national policy. Then came the Great Depression.
  22. Many Germans viewed the Versailles Peace Treaty as?
    profoundly unfair to Germany. Almost all Germans viewed the Treaty of Versailles as a "dictated peace" and profoundly unfair to Germany. During the 1920s and after, many German politicians, not least Adolph Hitler, used the unpopularity of the Treaty of Versailles as a political rallying cry. After coming to power in the 1930s, Hitler essentially tore up the treaty.
  23. The feature of the Versailles Treaty that most Germans found very hard to accept was?
    Article 231, the "War Guilt Clause" that imposed heavy war reparations on Germany. Article 231 of the Versailles Treaty of 1919 was particularly upsetting to most Germans, regardless of political philosophy. The so-called War Guilt Clause required Germany (and Austria) to accept full responsibility for World War I. Germany was required to pay reparations for the damage caused by the war. In the future, Germany's army was to be limited to 100,000 men, Alsace and Lorraine were returned to France, and sections of Prussia given over to Poland. However, it was Article 231 that was most resented.
  24. For Woodrow Wilson, the most important thing after World War I was to?
    assure acceptance of his Fourteen Points. In 1918, the American president, Woodrow Wilson, wished to turn the war aims away from national and territorial ambitions to more idealistic principles. His Fourteen Points included open rather than secret diplomacy, a reduction in armaments, the self-determination of all peoples, and "a general association of nations" to guarantee peace. During the peace negotiations, Wilson found himself outmaneuvered by the "realists," but the Versailles Treaty of 1919 did include the League of Nations. However, the American Senate refused to ratify the treaty; thus, the United States was not a member of the League.
  25. The Cheka was a?
    Bolshevik secret police unit used to murder and terrorize opponents. Lenin and the Bolsheviks came to power quickly and easily in October–November 1917 with the collapse of the provisional government. Keeping power was another matter. Russia soon sunk into civil war with the Bolshevik Reds fighting the Whites, who included such varied groups as monarchists, republicans, and non-Marxist socialists. In waging the civil war, Lenin authorized a new secret police—the Cheka, whose tool was terror against all opponents of the Bolshevik regime.
  26. Vladimir Ilyich Lenin
    promised "land, peace, and bread" and a quick Russian withdrawal from World War I. As leader of the anti-democratic Bolsheviks, Lenin, after returning from his exile in Switzerland in April 1917, planned for revolution. In his "April Theses" he argued that Russia did not have to go through a bourgeois stage, but that the revolution could move directly into socialism instead. To further the revolutionary aims of the Bolsheviks, Lenin appealed for public support against the provisional government by promising "Peace, Land, Bread."
  27. One socioeconomic group that clearly benefited from World War I was?
    large industrialists, especially owners of factories making weapons and munitions. The one group in society that most benefited from the war was the owners of the large factories that manufactured munitions. Because of the continuing and immediate need for more and more shells, bombs, and guns, governments rarely placed limits upon industrial profits when it came to war production. Firms not directly involved in war production did not profit and were sometimes forced to go out of business.
  28. As public morale and support for the war ebbed,?
    police powers were widely expanded to include the arrest of all dissenters as traitors to the state. As the war entered into its second and third years, public morale and support for the war waned considerably. The more authoritarian governments, such as Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Russia, traditionally used force to stifle dissent, but even the more democratic governments of France, Britain, and the United States expanded their police powers to curtail opposition to the war. Britain's Defense of the Realm Act (DORA) allowed the government to arrest dissenters as traitors.
  29. The chief reason for the United States' entry into World War I was?
    blatant German violations of the principles of neutrality and freedom of the seas. British propaganda was very effective in World War I. As an American senator remarked, truth is always the first casualty of war. But it was the blatant German violations of the principles of neutrality and the freedom of the seas that led to American involvement. Germany resorted to submarines in the sinking of neutral ships in the hope of starving the British into surrender. Congress declared war against Germany on April 6, 1917.
  30. As fought in World War I, trench warfare?
    became increasingly unreal as baffled and incompetent officers persistently ordered their men to accomplish battlefield objectives that were impossible. Most of the politicians and generals did not anticipate that trench warfare would dominate World War I, particularly on the Western Front. Having no seeming alternatives, generals continuously ordered men into battle to gain objectives that were obviously impossible to achieve, given the trenches, barbed wire, and machine guns facing them. War became a senseless slaughter on all sides. The British experienced 60,000 casualties on the first day of the Battle of the Somme, and at Verdun, hundreds of thousands of French and German soldiers died in a few short months.
  31. In August 1914, the perception of the upcoming war among Europeans was that?
    it would be very short, possibly only weeks in duration. When World War I broke out in August 1914, there was great enthusiasm for war in all the participating countries. Most believed that their nation was in the right in going to war and that their cause was the just cause. In addition, most believed that modern technology and weaponry would guarantee a short war and that modern economies could not tolerate a long war. They believed that "the boys would be home by Christmas."
  32. Prior to World War I, the struggle for influence in southeastern Europe created serious tensions between?
    Austria-Hungary and Russia. The decline of the Ottoman Empire sparked the opposing ambitions of Austria-Hungary and Russia in the Balkans. Austria-Hungary, its ambitions in central Europe blocked by Germany, sought to replace the Ottomans as the major power in southeastern Europe. The Russians had their own territorial desires to gain access to the Mediterranean at Ottoman expense, but as a Slavic people, they also saw their role as the protector of their fellow Slavs in the Balkans.
  33. The immediate cause of World War I was?
    the assassination of Austrian Archduke Francis Ferdinand in Bosnia. The immediate cause of World War I was the assassination of the heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne. The Balkans had been a place of conflict for decades because of the Ottoman decline. Austria and Russia had their opposing claims, as did the smaller state of Serbia. In July 28, 1914, Archduke Francis Ferdinand and his wife were driving through Sarajevo in Bosnia when a Serbian terrorist assassinated them. The opposing alliances and their commitments soon dragged Europe into war.
  34. The Bismarckian System had the ultimate result of?
    dividing Europe into two opposing groups of nations making war more likely. Ultimately, Bismarck's attempt to isolate France in order to maintain the gains Germany had made as the result of the Franco-Prussian War divided Europe into two opposing groups of nations, thus making war more likely. Initially, he allied Germany with Austria and Russia, but the Balkan rivalry between the latter two states ended the Three Emperors' League, and Bismack turned to Italy. By the early twentieth century, there were two opposing alliances: the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria and Italy, and the Triple Entente of Russia, France, and Britain.
  35. The Post-Impressionist painter of The Starry Night?
    Vincent van Gogh. Modernism in painting began with the Impressionist movement in the 1870s with Camille Pissarro and Claude Monet, who focused upon the "impressions" of the changing effect of light upon their subjects. A decade later, Post-Impressionists built upon the light and color of the Impressionists, but were also concerned about form and structure. One of the major Post-Impressionists was Vincent van Gogh. His The Starry Night is among the landmark paintings of modern art.
  36. She was the recipient of two Nobel Prizes?
    Marie Curie. Marie Curie, born in Poland, matriculated at the University of Paris, where she studied both physic and mathematics. Working with her husband Pierre, Curie discovered that the element radium gave off radiation that came from within the atom itself. Obviously, the atom was not a single body, but contained sub-atomic particles such as electrons and protons. In 1903, Curie was awarded the Nobel Prize in physics, and in 1911, she received the Nobel Prize in chemistry.
  37. Russia's disastrous defeat in the Russo-Japanese war indirectly led to?
    the Revolution of 1905. In 1904, the Japanese attacked the Russian fleet at Port Arthur in the Far East. A second Russian fleet was destroyed at the Battle of Tsushima Strait off the coast of Japan. Russia's defeat, combined with economic problems, led to demonstrations by workers in St. Petersburg. Troops were called out, violence resulted, and "Bloody Sunday" led to more demonstrations and more strikes. In the aftermath of the Revolution of 1905, Tsar Nicholas II instituted limited reforms.
  38. British Liberals under Lloyd George achieved distinction for their?
    passage of the National Insurance Act of 1911. Nineteenth-century liberalism stressed the freedom of the individual from government control, or a policy of laissez-faire. By the twentieth century, liberalism was more willing to embrace a greater role for government. In Britain, the key figure was David Lloyd George, who guided the National Insurance Act of 1911 through Parliament. The act provided benefits for workers in the event of sickness and unemployment, to be paid for by contributions from workers, employers, and the state. It was a radical change in Britain, although Bismarck's Germany had earlier, similar reforms.
  39. At its premier, Igor Stravinsky's Rite of Spring, now considered as a classic example of modernism in music and ballet,
    caused a riot among audience members with its heavy beat and dissonance. Igor Stravinsky, working with the Ballet Russe under the direction of Sergei Diaghilev, revolutionized the world of music and ballet with The Firebird (1910) and Petrushka (1911), both based on Russian folk tales. His 1913 musical ballet, The Rite of Spring, proved to be particularly controversial, with its pulsating rhythms and dissonances, blatant sensuality, and radical dances and costumes. When first performed in Paris, it caused a riot.
  40. The higher criticism of the Bible championed by the French Catholic scholar Ernst Renan?
    questioned the historical accuracy of the Bible and denied the divinity of Jesus. Science, such as Darwin's theory of evolution, seemed to undermine the literal Bible, including its account of creation in just seven days. Some scholars applied critical principles, known as higher criticism, in examining the Bible. Ernst Renan, in his Life of Jesus, claimed that the Bible was not literally true, and he presented a Jesus as a human being rather than God, whose importance was as a moral example to human beings rather than a personal savior.
  41. Using Darwin's terminology, Herbert Spencer argued that?
    all human societies were organisms evolving through time from a struggle with their environment. Herbert Spencer was a popular advocate of what is called "social Darwinism." Spencer claimed that societies were organisms that had evolved over time through struggling with their environments. Progress was a consequence of struggle. The strongest, or the "fit," were those who survived. Spencer argued that laissez-faire was the proper government role, or lack of role. For some like Spencer, wealth determined fitness, but for others, war or race "proved" the fittest.
  42. Friedrich Nietzsche
    believed that Christianity undermined the creativity of Western civilization. Friedrich Nietzsche glorified the irrational. A critic of the European middle class, or bourgeois society, and its emphasis upon reason and rationality, Nietzsche argued that irrational life-forces were the true reality. Christianity, Nietzsche claimed, bore the responsibility for the decline of the West because of its "slave morality."
  43. Who was responsible for the Special Theory of Relativity?
    Einstein. Albert Einstein is responsible for the Special Theory of Relativity, which was first published in his 1905 paper "The Electro-dynamics of Moving Bodies." In it, Einstein stated that space and time are not absolute, but relative to the observer. The mechanistic world of Newton was no longer the only explanation for the universe. Other key figures in modern physics were Marie and Pierre Curie, who worked with radiation and the atom, and Max Planck, the discoverer of the quantum theory.
  44. What statement BEST applies to Spain and Italy in the late nineteenth century?
    Both countries remained second-rate European powers less transformed by the economic and cultural innovations of the age. In spite of the unification of Italy by 1870 and a new parliamentary constitution adopted in Spain in 1875, both nations remained second-rate powers. In Spain, the Catholic Church, large landowners, and the army resisted any modernization, and in Italy, there was constant conflict between workers and industrialists. Italy's pretensions to great-power status were ruined when Italy became the first European nation to lose a war to an African state (Ethiopia).
  45. The principal motive driving European states to develop public education systems for their citizens was?
    political, to educate expanding electorates and strengthen patriotism and nationalism. There were several reasons for the development of mass public education in the late nineteenth century, including the belief that education would lead to social and personal improvement and the increasing need for more highly educated workers. However, the chief motive was political: expanding voting rights necessitated a more literate population and mass education could also instill the values of patriotism and nationalism.
  46. The chief cause of rising European populations between 1850 and 1910 was?
    a declining mortality rate. The population of Europe increased dramatically between 1850 and 1910. Between 1850 and 1880, the main cause of the population increase was a rising birthrate, at least in Western Europe, but after 1880, a notable decline in death rates was the reason for the population increase. The decline in death rates after 1880 was mainly due to medical discoveries, such as a vaccine against smallpox, and improvements in the urban environment, including better nutrition and improved sanitation.
  47. The Marxist revisionist Eduard Bernstein stressed the need for?
    working through democratic politics to create socialism. Eduard Bernstein, a Marxist member of Germany's Social Democratic Party, argued in favor of evolutionary socialism rather than the orthodox revolutionary socialism. In Bernstein's opinion, capitalism was not collapsing and imminent revolution was not a likely possibility. Instead, Bernstein argued, socialism could be achieved gradually and through democratic means rather than through violent revolution.
  48. In late nineteenth-century Europe, increased competition for foreign markets and the growing importance of domestic demand for economic development led to?
    a strong reaction against free trade and imposition of steep protective tariffs by most nations. The increasing growth of industrial production in the late nineteenth century depended upon the access to new markets. Increased competition between the major industrial nations of the West led to a reaction against free trade, one of the major pillars of nineteenth-century liberalism, especially in Great Britain, but also elsewhere. By the beginning of the twentieth century, steep protective tariffs were again the norm.
  49. In late nineteenth-century Europe, human progress was increasingly identified with?
    material progress or greater consumption of material goods. By the late nineteenth century, most Europeans believed that human progress meant material progress. Defining progress in material terms was largely a product of the Second Industrial Revolution that even more than the earlier Industrial Revolution of the eighteenth century provided more goods, "more things," to more of the population. For many, progress—particularly material progress—seemed inevitable and the solution to all of humanity's challenges.
  50. Charles Darwin's The Descent of Man?
    explained the origin of human beings and their survival through adaptations to their environment. In his On the Origins of Species by Means of Natural Selection, published in 1859, Charles Darwin did not discuss human beings in his theory of biological evolution through natural selection. However, in his later The Descent of Man (1871), Darwin claimed that human beings were also the result of evolution, for "man is the co-descendant with other mammals of a common progenitor." Darwin's work was very controversial in his theory that human beings were not unique, but part of the evolutionary order of nature.
  51. According to Karl Marx, the struggle between bourgeoisie and proletariat would ultimately result in?
    a classless society. To Karl Marx, the class struggle over the ownership and control of property was the theme of all of history. In the nineteenth century, the struggle was between the bourgeoisie, or the industrial middle class, and the proletariat, or the industrial working class. Inevitably, the proletariat would be victorious and form a dictatorship to correctly order the means of production, but ultimately a classless society would result, and the state as the instrument of one class against another would simply wither away.
  52. The key motives prompting England and France to fight Russia in the Crimean War included?
    Britain's concern over disruption of the existing balance of power caused by a victorious Russia. Britain's major concern in 1853 was the possibility that the balance of power in Europe and the Near East would be disrupted by a Russian victory over the declining Ottoman Empire. When the Ottomans rejected the Russian demand that it be given control over the Christian holy places in Palestine, Russian invaded and the war began. The British government was less concerned about religion than the impact a Russian victory would have on British interests in the Middle East and India.
  53. The prime minister of Piedmont who organized the Italian unification movement was?
    Camillo di Cavour. After the failure to achieve Italian unification in 1849, King Victor Emmanuel, the new ruler of Piedmont-Sardinia, appointed Count Camilo di Cavour as prime minister. A brilliant diplomat, Cavour realized that the obstacle to Italian independence was Austria and that Piedmont was too weak to expel Austria by itself. Allying Piedmont with France was Cavour's solution. In 1859, war erupted and Austria was forced to abandon most of its Italian possessions. Italy was unified by the end of 1860, except for Venice and Rome.
  54. The immediate origins of the Crimean War involved?
    Russia's right to protect Christian shrines in Palestine. The decline of the Ottoman Empire in the nineteenth century sparked the concerns and ambitions of Austria, Russia, France, and Britain. The spark that set off the war was the demand by Russia in 1853 that it must have the right to protect Christian holy places in Palestine. The Ottomans refused and Russia invaded. France and Britain joined the Ottomans against the Russians, in part because a Russian victory would upset the balance of power. Much of the fighting took place on the Crimean peninsula in the northern Black Sea; thus, the war is known as the Crimean War.
  55. The Romantic movement can be viewed as?
    A reaction against the Enlightenment's preoccupation with reason. Romanticism was a reaction to the Enlightenment's preoccupation with reason and rationalism. The Romantics, instead, stressed intuition, emotion, imagination, and feeling. An important influence on the Romantics was Johann Wolfgang von Goethe's novel, The Sorrows of Young Werther, in which the protagonist followed his inner feelings and eventually committed suicide when rejected by the girl he loved. Romanticism included poets such as William Wordsworth, painters like Caspar David Friedrich, and the musical composers Ludwig van Beethoven and Hector Berlioz.
  56. Which artistic style is BEST exemplified in the painting by Caspar David Friedrich?
    Romantic. Caspar David Friedrich's Man and Woman Gazing at the Moon is a brilliant example of Romanticism. Romantic painters often used nature as a subject, as Friedrich does here, portraying a mystical rather than a realistic or photographic landscape. Friedrich once claimed that "The divine is everywhere," even in a grain of sand. The two figures gazing at the moon seem to be almost transcending this world and experiencing the infinite, or perhaps nature itself is the infinite.
  57. When he established the Second Empire, Napoleon III?
    received the overwhelming electoral support of the people. Capitalizing on his uncle's fame, Louis Napoleon was elected president of France's Second Republic in 1848. The constitution did not allow for reelection, thus, in 1851, he overthrew his government, and the following year he became emperor of France's Second Empire as Napoleon III. He was a master of popular politics and used the democratic referendum process to gain the approval of the French voters for his political ventures.
  58. Giuseppe Mazzini's nationalist organization Young Italy?
    failed to achieve his goal of Risorgimento by 1849. The major early figure of Italian nationalism, or Italy's Risorgimento ("resurgence"), was Giuseppe Mazzini. In pursuit of Italian independence, Mazzini founded Young Italy in 1831. In 1848, rebellion spread throughout Italy. Mazzini and Giuseppe Garibaldi proclaimed a republic in Rome. However, the uprisings were quickly put down by the Austrians in the north and by the French, who returned Pope Pius IX to power in Rome. Risorgimento had failed in 1849.
  59. The English Poor Law of 1834 was based on the theory that?
    intentionally poor state welfare conditions would encourage the poor to find profitable employment. The unemployed paupers traditionally were given poor relief only in the parish where they were born. The increased mobility of the industrial society made that unworkable. The solution was the Poor Law of 1834 that established "workhouses" where the "work" was both miserable and degrading. The assumption was that if receiving welfare was painful, the pauper would leave the workhouse and find secure employment. Charles Dickens savaged the philosophy of the workhouse in his novel Oliver Twist.
  60. The primary force behind the 1830 revolutions in Belgium, Poland, and Italy was?
    Nationalism. The primary driving force in the 1830 revolutions in Belgium, Italy, and Poland in 1830 was nationalism. At the Congress of Vienna, the area once known as the Austrian Netherlands was added to the Dutch Republic, but in 1830, the former rebelled against the Dutch, leading to the establishment of the nation of Belgium. The other two national rebellions were less successful. The Austrians sent troops to put down the Italian uprising and the Russians crushed the Polish rebellion.
  61. Among J.S. Mill's most provocative writings was his "On the Subjection of Women," in which he argued that?
    the legal subordination of females to males is wrong since men and women possess the same natures. In his essay "On the Subjection of Women," John Stuart Mill stated that the legal subordination of females to males was wrong. The differences between men and women were due to social practices and traditions, not to different natures. Mill believed that with an equal education, females could achieve as much as males.
  62. Following the death of Alexander I in 1825, Russian society under Nicholas I became?
    a police state due to Nicholas's fear of internal and external revolution. Tsar Alexander I died in 1825. His legal heir was his brother, Constantine, who rejected the crown. During the confusing interregnum, a number of reformers hoped to install the weak Constantine as tsar and establish a constitutional monarchy. The so-called Decembrist Revolt failed, and the new tsar (another brother), Nicholas I (r. 1825–1855), proved to be one of the most reactionary rulers in Russia's history.
  63. At its most elementary level, nineteenth-century conservatism?
    sought to preserve past achievements by subordinating individual rights to the communal welfare. Although there were various varieties of conservatism in the nineteenth century, most conservatives agreed that there must be obedience to some political authority and that organized religion was necessary to preserve the social order. Also, individual rights and ambitions must be subordinated to the needs of the community, and the achievements and accomplishments of previous generations should generally be preserved.
  64. Europe's first official police forces?
    British bobbies. One of the first professional police departments was established in London. The individual responsible was Sir Robert Peel, the Home Secretary in the British cabinet, and the police became known then and since as bobbies. Another early police system began in Paris in 1829, with the police being known as serjents. In Germany in the aftermath of the revolutions of 1848, a police system called the Schutzmannschaft was established.
  65. Edwin Chadwick?
    advocated modern sanitary reforms that resulted in Britain's first Public Health Act. Britain's Edwin Chadwick was obsessed with the problems of urban poverty and squalor. In 1842, he published his Report on the Condition of the Labouring Population in Great Britain, in which he urged that sanitary reforms be made in urban drainage, the removal of garbage and other refuse, and improvements in the water supply through efficient sewers and piped water. In 1848, and due to Chadwick's endeavors, Britain's first Public Health Act created the National Board of Health.
  66. The only European country with a declining population in the nineteenth century was?
    Ireland. The population of Europe increased dramatically in the nineteenth century. The cause was not a rising birthrate, which in reality began to decline, but a decline in death rates due to fewer famines, epidemics, and wars. The exception was Ireland. Ireland's birth rate had risen significantly in the early part of the century, and to meet that population increase, the Irish peasants relied upon the potato. However, in 1845, the potato suffered blight. The resulting famine led to a million deaths. Another two million emigrated, many to the United States.
  67. Due to the size of the country, industrialization in the United States was dependent upon?
    a good system of transportation. Because of its extensive territory, industrialization in the United States required an efficient system of internal transportation. Roads and canals, steamboats on the major rivers, and most importantly, railroads, ultimately met the need. By 1860, the United States had 27,000 miles of railroad track.
  68. Continental industrialization differed from Great Britain's primarily because the continent?
    was dependent on joint-stock investment banks like the Crédit Mobilier. Continental industrialization occurred after industrialization in Britain. The increasing costs of machines and technologies required larger investments. The joint-stock investment banks mobilized the savings of thousands of investors, large and small, thus supplying the necessary capital. Among the most famous of the joint-stock corporations were the Crédit Mobilier in France, the Darmstadt Bank in Germany, and the Kreditanstalt in Austria.
  69. The Great Exhibition of 1851?
    displayed Great Britain's industrial wealth to the world. The Great Exhibition occurred in London in 1851. Housed in the Crystal Palace, a radical structure constructed entirely with glass and iron, the exhibition displayed Britain's industrial wealth to the world. Considered the first World's Fair, six million people visited the fair in six months to observe the 100,000 exhibits.
  70. The development of such superior locomotives as the Rocket, used on the first public railway lines, is attributed to?
    George Stephenson. Richard Trevithick developed a steam-powered locomotive for an industrial rail line in southern Wales in 1804, but it was George Stephenson's locomotive, the Rocket, that led to Britain's first modern railways. In 1832, on the 32-mile rail line running from Manchester to Liverpool, the Rocket traveled along at 16 miles per hour.
  71. James Watt was vital to the Industrial Revolution for his invention of?
    a rotary engine that could spin and weave cotton. In the 1780s, James Watt developed a rotary engine powered by steam that could turn a shaft and thus drive machinery. His rotary engine was quickly applied to the spinning and weaving of cotton cloth. Since cotton factories no longer needed to be located near running streams and rivers, the production of cotton textiles increased enormously.
  72. The first steps toward the Industrial Revolution in Britain occurred within its?
    Cotton Textile Industry. The cotton industry in Britain took the first step towards the Industrial Revolution. In the 1770s and 1780s, the cotton industry moved away from its traditional cottage industry approach and adopted modern factories, a development necessitated in part by the invention of such technologies as the flying shuttle, power loom, and eventually the steam engine.
  73. The Industrial Revolution had its beginnings in?
    Great Britian. The Industrial Revolution began in Britain, a nation that had certain advantages over its potential rivals in the eighteenth century. An agricultural revolution had resulted in greater food supplies, a surplus of capital was available for investment, crucial resources such as coal and iron were on hand, and Britain's limited government was supportive of individual ambition
  74. After Napoleon's defeat, the Quadruple Alliance?
    restored the old Bourbon monarchy to France in the person of Louis XVIII. In 1814, even before Napoleon's final defeat, the victorious powers—Britain, Austria, Russia, and Prussia, known as the Quadruple Alliance—restored the Bourbons to power in France. Louis XVIII, the brother of Louis XVI, succeeded Napoleon as ruler of France.
  75. The Continental System tried to defeat the British by?
    Preventing British Trade. Napoleon's Continental System was instituted in 1806–1807. British sea power made it nearly impossible to invade Britain, but Napoleon hoped to win an economic victory by closing the European continent to British trade. It did not succeed. The continent was too large, there were alternative markets for the British, and Napoleon's supposed continental allies often ignored the no-trade restrictions.
  76. Napoleon?
    He was a child of the Enlightenment and the French Revolution. Napoleon Bonaparte was a child of the Enlightenment and the French Revolution. As an outsider, born on Corsica, Napoleon could never have risen to the heights he did without the revolution that removed the special privileges that went with the hereditary Estates. When given power, in Egypt and later as Emperor, Napoleon personified the ideal of the Enlightenment in his many reforms, including the Civil Code, which preserved most of the revolutionary ideals including the principle of the equality of all citizens before the law.
  77. The Thermidorian Reaction occurred after?
    The death of Robespierre. The most radical stage of the French Revolution was brought to an end in July 1794, or the month of Thermidor. The National Convention turned against Maximilien Robespierre, the head of the Committee of Public Safety, and on July 28, Robespierre was guillotined. With his death, the revolution turned in a more moderate direction, an event referred to as the Thermidorian Reaction.
  78. The French revolutionary republican calendar?
    • Each month consisted of three ten-day weeks.
    • It was meant to signal a new beggining for the nation.
    • 1972 became year one in the new calendar.
    • No efforts were made to enforce it. In October 1793, the National Convention adopted a new, revolutionary calendar based not upon Christian beliefs and traditions, but upon the revolution itself. 1792 became Year I, the seven-day week was abolished in favor of the ten-day week (a decade), and the Christian holidays and saints days were replaced by festivals celebrating the revolution and its values.
  79. In September of 1792, the French National Convention?
    abolished the monarchy and established a republic. In April 1792, France declared war on Austria, a defensive measure against previous Austrian threats. Initially, the war did not go well for France, in part because the royal army had disintegrated. Defeat in battle and economic problems led to the arrest of Louis XVI and the suspension of the 1791 constitution which had established a limited monarchy. The resulting National Convention voted in September 1972 to establish a republic.
  80. The Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen?
    owed much to the American Declaration of Independence. The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen, which was adopted by the French National Assembly on August 26, 1789, owed much to the ideas of the American Declaration of Independence and its concept of natural and inalienable rights, which in turn had been influenced by the earlier natural rights philosophy of John Locke. In the French Declaration, the stated natural rights are "liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression."
  81. The controversy over voting by order versus voting by head in the French Estates-General saw?
    the Third Estate responding by forming a "National Assembly". When the Estates-General met in May 1789, the Third Estates had twice as many representatives as the First or Second Estates and demanded voting by head rather than voting by Estate. When the First Estate declared in favor of voting by Estate, on June 17, 1789, the Third Estate voted to constitute itself a "National Assembly." Three days later, after being locked out of their assembly place, they convened in an indoor tennis court and swore an oath to continue to meet together.
  82. In the summer of 1789, when the "revolution of the lawyers" appeared doomed by imminent royal use of armed force, the French Revolution as a whole was saved by the?
    intervention of armed commoners against royal forces. . After the Third Estate declared itself the "National Assembly" in June 1789, Louis XVI prepared to use force to disband the lawyer-dominated assembly. However, the common people, in a series of urban and rural uprisings in July and August, saved the "revolution of the lawyers." The most famous of the uprisings was the fall of the Bastille in Paris on July 14, 1789.
  83. By the eighteenth century, the French bourgeoisie and nobility were?
    increasingly less distinguishable from each other. By the second half of the eighteenth century, the French nobility and the wealthier bourgeoisie were similar in many ways. It was possible for wealthy members of the middle class to enter the ranks of the nobility, and economically there was often little to differentiate the two groups. Also, the ideas of the Enlightenment were often attractive to both the aristocracy and the bourgeoisie.
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