Ch. 3 Managing Stress and Coping with Life's Challenges

  1. Stress
    is the mental and physical response and adaptation by our bodies to the real or perceived changes and challenges in our lives
  2. Stressor
    is any real or perceived physical, social, or psychological event or stimulus that causes our bodies to react or respond
  3. Eustress
    • Positive stress
    • presents the opportunity for personal growth and satisfaction and can actually improve health
  4. Distress
    • negative stress
    • is caused by events that result in debilitative tension and strain
  5. acute stress
    comes from demands and pressures of the recent past and anticipated demands and pressures of the near future
  6. episodic acute stress
    which describes the state of regularly reacting with wild, acute stress about one thing or another
  7. chronic Stress
    an on going state of physiological arousal in response to ongoing or numerous perceived threats
  8. homeostasis
    all body systems are operating smoothly to maintain equilibrium
  9. adaptive response
    form of adjustment in which the body attempts to restore homeostasis
  10. immunocompetence
    the ability of the immune system to protect you from infectious disease and other threats to health
  11. Physical Effects of Stress
    • Stress and CVD
    • Stress and Diabetes
    • Stress and Digestive Problems
    • Stress and Impaired Immunity
    • Stress and Libido (Sex Drive)
  12. 1. What causes stress?
    2. Psychological Stressors
    • 1.
    • Adjustment to change
    • Hassles: little things that bug you
    • The Toll of Relationships
    • Academic and Financial Pressure
    • Frustration and Conflicts
    • Overload
    • Stressful Environments
    • Bias and Discrimination

    2. refer to the factors in our daily routines and in our social and physical environment that cause us to experience stress
  13. Overload
    occurs when, try as we might, there are not nearly enough hours in the day to do what we are required to do and we are not able to deal with all we have on our plate
  14. Background Distressor
    in the environment, such as noise, air, and water pollution; allergy-aggravating pollen and dust; or smoking
  15. What causes stress? Internal Stressors
    • Appraisal and Stress
    • Self-Esteem and Self-Efficacy
    • Type A, B, C, D Personalities
    • Psychological Hardiness
  16. Appraisal
    the interpretation and evaluation of information provided to the brain by the senses
  17. Suicidal Ideation
    a desire to die and thoughts about suicide
  18. 1. Type A Personality
    2. Type B Personality
    3. Type C Personality
    4. Type D Personality (distressed)
    • 1. hard-driving, competitive, time-driven perfectionists
    • 2. relaxed, noncompetitive, and more tolerant of others
    • 3. are stoic and tend to deny feelings, they have a tendency to conform to the wishes of others ("pleasers"), a lack of assertiveness, and an inclination toward feelings of helplessness and hopelessness 
    • 4. tendency of excessive negative worry, irritability, gloom, and inability to express these feelings due to social inhibition
  19. Hostility
    disproportionate amounts of anger; are distrustful of others; and have cynical, glass-half-empty approach to life
  20. Psychological Hardiness
    • may negate self-imposed stress associated with type A behavior
    • are characterized by control, commitment, and challenge
  21. Coping
    is the act of managing events or conditions to lessen the physical or psychological effects of excess stress
  22. Stress inoculation
    Stress-management technique in which a person consciously tries to prepare ahead of time for potential stressors
  23. Cognitive Reconstruction
    • the modification of thoughts, ideas, and beliefs that contribute to stress
    • think more positively
  24. Sympathpmimetics
    Food substances that can produce stresslike responses, such as caffeine
  25. Procrastinate
    voluntarily delay doing some task despite expecting to be worse off for the delay
  26. 1. Downshifting
    2. Consider the following
    • 1. moving from a high paying job to a job that makes you happy
    • cutting down on shopping habits and buying only what is necessary
    • 2.
    • Plan for health care cost
    • Determine your Ultimate Goal
    • Make both short-and long-term plans for simplifying your life
    • Complete a financial inventory
    • Select the right career
    • Consider options for saving money
  27. meditation
    a relaxation technique that involves deep breathing and concentration
  28. Visualization
    you create mental scenes using your imagination to promote relaxtion
  29. Biofeedback
    is a technique in which a person learns to control bodily functions, such as heart rate, body temperature, and breathing rate, with conscious mind control
  30. Hypnosis
    • requires a person to focus on one thought, object, or voice, thereby freeing the right hemisphere of the brain to become more active
    • a trancelike state that allows people to become unusually responsive to suggestion
  31. Why do you need sleep?
    • it conserves body energy
    • when you sleep, your core body temperature and the rate at which you burn calories drop→ this leaves you with more energy to perform activities throughout your waking hours
    • it restores you both mentally and physically
  32. Circadian Rhythm
    this 24-hour cycle by which you are accustomed to going to sleep, waking up, and performing habitual behaviors throughout your day
  33. hormone
    a "chemical messenger" that is released from one of the body's endocrine glands and travels in the bloodstream to another site where it helps to regulate body functions
  34. Sleep
    a readily reversible state of reduced responsiveness to, and interaction with, the enviroment
  35. Sleep Debt
    That's the total number of hours of missed sleep you're carrying around with you, either because you got up before your body was fully rested or because your sleep was interrupted
  36. Sleep Inertia
    which is characterized by cognitive impairment, grogginess, and a disoriented feeling
  37. Sleep Study
    a clinical assessment of sleep in which the patient is monitored while spending the night in a sleep disorder center
  38. Insomnia
    difficulty in falling asleep, frequent arousals during sleep, or early morning awakening-is the most common sleep complaint
  39. 1. Sleep Apnea 
    2. Two major types of sleep apnea
    • 1. is a disorder in which breathing is briefly and repeatedly interrupted during sleep
    • 2.
    • Central Sleep Apnea occurs when the brain fails to tell the respiratory muscles to initiate breathing 
    • Obstructive Sleep Apnea occurs when air cannot move in and out of a person's nose or mouth, even though the body tries to breathe
  40. Restless legs syndrome
    is a neurological disorder characterized by unpleasant sensations in the legs when at rest combined with and uncontrollable urge to move in an effort to relieve these feeings
  41. Narcolepsy
    is excessive, intrusive sleepines
Card Set
Ch. 3 Managing Stress and Coping with Life's Challenges