Chp1-5 Chem 1A

  1. What is empirical evidence?
    evidence you can measure
  2. Define quantitative evidence?
    numerical data collected
  3. What is qualitative data?
    Data that is based on observations
  4. What are the steps to the scientific method?
    • 1. observation
    • 2. Hypothesis
    • 3. experimentation
    • 4. scientific theory
  5. What does a hypothesis do?
    it attempts to explain previous observations
  6. What is the Law of Conservation of Mass?
    matter is neither created nor destroyed
  7. What is a negative control?
    It is the group that doesn't receive the experimental condition.
  8. Positive control refers to....?
    the experimental treatment that's known to produce phenomena under examination. Enables comparison to experimental group.
  9. Experimental group is...?
    exposed to conditions that are predicted to result in a particular observation.
  10. What is a Scientific Theory?
    model that describes and explains the principles underlying scientific laws and observations
  11. What explains what happens in a small amount?
  12. What explains why it happens in a small amount?
  13. What explains what happens in every event?
    a Law
  14. What explains why something happens in all events?
    a theory
  15. What is the SI Unit used for Length?
    meter (m)
  16. What is the SI unit for mass?
    kilogram (kg)
  17. What is the SI unit for temperature?
    Kelvin (K)
  18. Avogadro's #
    6.022 * 1023
  19. Define Accuracy in an experiment?
    how close a result is to the true value
  20. Define precision in an experiment
    • 1. how close a # is to the other #s
    • 2. reflection of the degrees of certainty in a measurement
  21. Percent error
    Image Upload 1
  22. Atomic Theory
    • 1. all atoms given element have the same mass and other properties that distinguish them from other elements
    • 2. Atoms combine in simple whole # ratios to form compounds
  23. What are atoms composed of?
    • protons
    • neutrons
    • electrons
  24. Where are protons located?
    in the nucleus
  25. Where are protons located?
    in the nucleus
  26. Electrons are located where?
    they occupy the orbitals
  27. Most of the mass of the atoms comes from:

    E. neutrons and protons
  28. True or False.
    Electrons have almost no mass.

    (Relative to protons and neutrons.)
  29. Define Isotopes.
    atoms that have same # protons but different # of neutrons
  30. Do isotopes of a particular element have the same mass?
    No. They have different masses and % abundances.
  31. The mass # is made up of what components?
    protons and neutrons
  32. The atomic # is equal to:

    A. protons
  33. What are ions?
    losing and gaining electrons or protons
  34. If an atom has equal amounts of protons and electrons, what is the charge of the atom?
  35. Define Cation
    -cations are the result from losing electrons and thus have a positive charge.

    -some gain protons (Base)
  36. What is an anion?
    -can be result of gaining electrons thus having a negative charge.

    -result from losing a proton (acid)
  37. What is a molecule/compound?
    2 or more atoms bonded together
  38. what is diatomic compound?
    2 same atoms bonded together

    ex: H2, O2
  39. True or False.
    Pure substance compositions doesn't change from one sample to another.
  40. What is the difference between a chemical change and a physical change?
    Chemical: alters chemical composition of a sample (ex: wood burning)

    Physical: physical state altered w/out altering chemical composition (ex: ice-> water)
  41. 1°F = ?°C
  42. Group 1 metals are considered to be what category in the periodic table?
    Alkali Metals
  43. The only charge we'll see for Group 1 elements are?
    +1 charge
  44. Group 1 metals are considered to be:

    D. all of the above
  45. True or False.
    Group 1 Alkali Metals have a high density and high melting/boiling points compared to other metals.
    • False. 
    • They have a low density and low melting/boiling points compared to other metals.
  46. Which group in the periodic table make up the Alkaline Earth metals?
    Group 2
  47. What charge does group 2 elements typically posses?
    2+ charge is the only charge for this group.
  48. Transition metals are where in the periodic table?
    • Block D and F.
    • The middle block and bottom rows
    • Image Upload 2
  49. What are the oxidation states of transition metals?
    they exhibit multiple states (1+ to 7+)
  50. True or False.
    Transition metals are dull in color.
    False. Transition metals form colorful compounds.
  51. True or False.
    Post transition metals are soft and brittle.
  52. Where are post transition metals on the table?
    Image Upload 3
  53. Which category do the semi-metals belong to?
  54. What charge do Halogens have?
    -1 charge
  55. What are non-metals?
    they are all the elements not in Group 1, group 2, transition metals, post transition metals, or metalloids
  56. The "organic elements" are known as what?
  57. Which group do the halogens belong to?
    Group 7
  58. Which group has elements in all 3 phases of matter (gas, liquid, solid)?
    group 7A halogens
  59. Noble gases belong to which group in the periodic table?
    group 8A
  60. True or False.
    Noble gases are highly reactive.
    • False.
    • They don't react because they are extremely stable. 
  61. ionization energy
    amount of energy required to break off an electron from a neutral atom in its gaseous phase
  62. electron affininty
    measures energy charge that occurs where electron is added
  63. electronegativity
    propert describing atoms ability to attract and bind to electrons
  64. In which direction does the radius increase?
    from top to bottom and right to left
  65. ionization increases in which direction?
    increases from left to right in the table
  66. What increases from left to right?
    • ionization energy
    • electron affinity
    • electronegativity
  67. What increases from right to left and top to bottom?
    atomic radius
  68. What increases from top to bottom?
    • ionization energy
    • electron affinity
    • electronegativity
Card Set
Chp1-5 Chem 1A
CHEM1A Exam1