1. How many facial bones are there
  2. what two bones of the face do not come in pairs
    • mandible (lower jaw)
    • vomer bone
  3. list all the facial bones that have a pair
    • palatine
    • maxillae
    • zygomatic
    • Lacrimal
    • nasal bones
    • inferui nasal chonchae
  4. what are the largest immoveable bones of the face
  5. what are the four process located on each maxilla
    • palatine process
    • alveolar process
    • zygomatic process
    • frontal process
  6. where is the CR for a right or left lateral facial bones (orbits)
    how do we adjust pts body into a true lateral
    CR at level of zygoma (cheek bone) midway between eam and outer canthus

    oblique the patient in rao or lao
  7. which side is closest to IR when doing facial bones (orbits)
    side of injury should be closest to the IR
  8. what line is perp to IR and which is parallel to IR when doing a lateral facial bone (orbits) position
    what must we to the chine in order to bring IOML perp to front edge of IR
    • IPL perp
    • MSP parallel
    • tuck the chin down
  9. what two points can we palpate to ensure they are equidistant from the tabletop in a lateral facial position
    external occipital protuberance and nasion or glabella
  10. Rotation in a lateral facial bone (orbits) xray is visible by what structure
    anterior and posterior separation of symmetric vertical bilateral structures such as the mandibular rami and greater wings of sphenoid
  11. Tilt is evident in a lateral facial bone (orbits) position by what structure
    orbial roofs (plates) and greater wings of sphenoid
  12. In the parietoacanthial projection of the facial bones where is the cr exiting
    CR perp to IR and centered to exit at the acanthion
  13. In parietoacanthial (waters) projection for facial bones (orbits) which line is perp to the IR
    In this position what line forms a 37 degree angle with the table/IR
    how do we ensure no rotation or tilt with these positions ( 2 areas of palpation)
    • MML (mentomeatal)
    • OML

    palpate the mastoid process of each side and lateral orbital margins
  14. what is the CR angle for a pa axial caldwell facial bone (orbits) and where is the cr exiting
    which line is

    what line is needed to be perp to the table

    If the area of interest is the orbital floors in this position what angle would you need to use and why
    15 deg caudad centered to exit at the nasion


    30 deg caudad to project petrous ridges below the infraorbital margins
  15. A good caldwell method for facial bones (orbits) shows what structure and where
    petrous ridges in lower 1/3 of the orbit
  16. what line is perp to the table in an modified waters method (modified parietoacanthial) for facial bones (orbits)

    what line forms a _____ deg angle with the IR

    OML; 55deg
  17. where is the CR centered to exit in the modified waters position for facial bones (orbits)
    at acanthion
  18. what bone can you do tabletop of the face and w/o a grid
    what is not recommended when doing this position
    • nasal bones
    • using AEC because it is a small area (can use same technique as a hand)
  19. in the lateral position of the nasal bone where is the CR
    What two lines are perp to the table and IR which is parallel
    .5inch inferior to nasion

    IPL and IOML

  20. where is the CR for the superoinferior tangential (axial) projection for nasal bones
    what direction is the CR and how much angle
    Is the cassette length or cross?
    CR to nasion

    Cr is caudad and angle as much needed to keep it as parallel to GAL (glabelloalveolar line)

  21. what is needed in the axial projection of the nasal bones to keep the GAL perp to IR
    Place a sponge under the IR with the IR under the pts chin on an angle
  22. what is the routine and special for facial bones (orbits)
    • right or left lateral which ever side is affected
    • parietoacanthial (waters method)

    • Special:
    • Modified waters (modified parietoacanthial)
  23. what is the routine for nasal bones and special
    • routine:
    • lateral Both (R&L)
    • waters method

    • Special:
    • superoinferior (axial)
  24. what is the routine for zygomatic arches
    • SMV
    • Oblique inferosuperior (tangential)
    • ap axial (modified towne method)
    • parietoacanthial (waters method)
  25. What size cassette do we need for most facial boes
  26. where is the cr for an SMV projection of the zygomatic arches
    which line is parallel to IR
    • 1.5 in below mandibular symphysis
    • IOML
  27. what structures are seen in the SMV zygomatic arc view
    zygomatic arches laterally from each mandibular ramus
  28. what structures are shown on the right and left lateral facial bones
    superimposed facial bones of the sphenoid, orbitol roofs sella turcica zygoma and mandible
  29. what structures are best shown in a waters method (parietoacanthial projection)
    IOMS maxillae nasal septum zygomatic bones zygomatic arches and anterior nasal spine
  30. In the modified waters position the orbital plates are where and why
    Where are the petrous ridges in this position
    • perp to IR because CR has no angle
    • within the lower half of the maxillary sinuses
  31. Nasal bones are done table top true or false
  32. what position shows the petrous ridges below the maxillary sinuses
    waters projection
  33. what is the L shaped structure that lie behind the nasal cavity on each side
    palatine bone
  34. Which facial bone forms the majority of the hard palate
  35. the scroll like process found within the nasal cavity are ___
    nasal conchae
  36. the bony nasal septum is composed of the septal cartilage and which 2 other bones
    ethmoid and vomer
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