chapter 20 glossary terms

  1. Accessory muscles
    Muscles recruited to assist with body functions when the normal muscles used for that task are inadequate. For example, in respiratory distress, accessory muscles may be used to help expand the rib cage, allowing the patient to inhale.
  2. Alveoli
    A large collection of small sacs in the lung that provides a larger surface area for gas exchange than if the lung were made up of a single large sac.
  3. Arytenoid
    One of three separate cartilaginous structures in the aryepiglottic folds that are attached to each other and other structures by ligaments as well as the intrinsic and extrinsic muscles of the larynx.
  4. Bronchus
    Either of the two primary divisions of the trachea that lead into the right or left lung.
  5. Carina
    Level of the 5th thoracic vertebrae; an anatomical part, ridge, or process.
  6. Diaphragm
    A large, thin, dome-shaped muscle that divides the abdomen from the thorax.
  7. Epiglottis
    A U shaped structure in the upper airway attached to the anterior pharynx between the base of the tongue and the larynx that protects the lower airway from foreign body aspiration.
  8. Glottis
    The space between the vocal cords.
  9. Hyoid
    The only bone in the body that does not directly articulate with another bone. Instead, it serves as a common point of attachment for a number of muscles and ligaments that function in swallowing and airway maintenance.
  10. Inspiratory capacity
    The total of the tidal volume plus the inspiratory reserve volume, which is a measure of the maximum air that can be inspired.
  11. Larynx
    Also known as the voice box, the upper group of structures of the lower airway that contains the vocal cords.
  12. Medulla oblongata
    The part of the brain responsible for controlling involuntary vital functions; the brainstem.
  13. Minute ventilation
    A measure of the total volume of gas that passes through the lungs in a minute. It equals the respiratory rate (RR) times the volume per breath (Tidal Volume, or TV).
  14. Negative pressure ventilation
    A mechanical ventilation technique in which a negative pressure environment is created around the patient's chest, thus sucking air into the lungs. An iron lung is an example.
  15. Peak expiratory flow
    The maximum velocity of gas movement during exhalation.
  16. Pharynx
    The area of the airway composed of the spaces behind the nose (the nasopharynx) and the oral cavity (the oropharynx).
  17. Pleura
    The delicate serous membrane that lines each half of the thorax and is folded back over the surface of the lung on the same side.
  18. Positive pressure ventilation
    A mechanical ventilation technique in which the pressure in the patient's airway is increased, thus forcing air into the lungs. Intubation or a bag-valve mask are examples.
  19. Surfactant
    A fluid that decreases the alveoli's surface tension and prevents the alveoli from collapsing during expiration.
  20. Thyroid gland
    A highly vascular, H shaped structure that lies along the sides of the larynx and upper trachea.
  21. Tidal volume
    The volume of a normal breath, approximately 5 to 7 cc/kg of ideal body weight.
  22. Trachea
    A conduit for respiratory gasses to pass to and from the lungs.
  23. Valecula
    The space formed between the anterior-superior surface of the epiglottis and the posterior base of the tongue.
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chapter 20 glossary terms