Overview of Research Designs

  1. Basic Research
    Simply satisfies researcher's curiosity
  2. Applied research
    applies the knowledge to somehow benefit humankind
  3. Field Research
    • Takes place in more natural settings
    • Less control over variables
  4. Laboratory Research
    • Takes place in laboratory
    • More control over Variables
  5. Cross-sectional Research
    Studies individuals of different ages at one point in time
  6. Longitudinal Research
    studies a single age group over a number of years
  7. Quantitative Methods
    Differences in amount
  8. Qualitative Methods
    Differences in kind
  9. Descriptive Methods
    • Observing and Describing behavior
    • Who, what, where, when questions
    • Naturalistic observation
    • Surveys
    • Case studies
    • Correlational studies
  10. Experimental method
    Observation of causal relationships
  11. Independent Variable (IV)
    variable that is manipulated or varied by a researcher to see if it has an effect on another variable
  12. Dependent Variable (DV)
    variable that is measured to see if it is influenced by IV
  13. Extraneous Variables
    variables that affect the DV but were not manipulated by researcher
  14. Control Variable
    variable that may have an effect on the DV (over the IV) and therefore needs to be controlled for via research design or statistics
  15. Confounding Variable
    variable that may have an effect on the DV and is systematically related to IV -> offers alternative explanation for the outcome of study
  16. Type I Error (α)
    False positive: we think there is a difference but in fact there is not
  17. Type II Error (β)
    False Negative: we think there is no difference but in fact there is a difference
  18. Power
    • reject false null hypothesis
    • True Positive: we think there is a difference and there really is one
  19. Effect Size
    • Measure of the strength of the relationship between/among variables
    • Determines if differences are not only statistically significant, but also whether they are iportant
  20. Ways to Increase Power
    • Be careful how you measure your variables
    • Use more powerful statistical analyses
    • Use designs that provide good control over extraneous variables
    • Restrict your sample to a specific group of individuals
    • Increase your sample size -> reduces error variance
    • Maximize treatment manipulation
Card Set
Overview of Research Designs
We be designin' research.