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Overview of Research Designs
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Basic Research
Simply satisfies researcher's curiosity
Applied research
applies the knowledge to somehow benefit humankind
Field Research
Takes place in more natural settings
Less control over variables
Laboratory Research
Takes place in laboratory
More control over Variables
Cross-sectional Research
Studies individuals of different ages at one point in time
Longitudinal Research
studies a single age group over a number of years
Quantitative Methods
Differences in amount
Qualitative Methods
Differences in kind
Descriptive Methods
Observing and Describing behavior
Who, what, where, when questions
Naturalistic observation
Surveys
Case studies
Correlational studies
Experimental method
Observation of causal relationships
Independent Variable (IV)
variable that is manipulated or varied by a researcher to see if it has an effect on another variable
Dependent Variable (DV)
variable that is measured to see if it is influenced by IV
Extraneous Variables
variables that affect the DV but were not manipulated by researcher
Control Variable
variable that may have an effect on the DV (over the IV) and therefore needs to be controlled for via research design or statistics
Confounding Variable
variable that may have an effect on the DV and is systematically related to IV -> offers alternative explanation for the outcome of study
Type I Error (α)
False positive: we think there is a difference but in fact there is not
Type II Error (β)
False Negative: we think there is no difference but in fact there is a difference
Power
reject false null hypothesis
True Positive
: we think there is a difference and there really is one
Effect Size
Measure of the strength of the relationship between/among variables
Determines if differences are not only statistically significant, but also whether they are iportant
Ways to Increase Power
Be careful how you measure your variables
Use more powerful statistical analyses
Use designs that provide good control over extraneous variables
Restrict your sample to a specific group of individuals
Increase your sample size -> reduces error variance
Maximize treatment manipulation
Author
chanchan27104
ID
283748
Card Set
Overview of Research Designs
Description
We be designin' research.
Updated
2014-09-24T00:03:05Z
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