archaeology - Egypt

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  1. T/F
    Egyptians have been making pyramids 2000 years before herodotus went there
  2. Egypt aka ___?
    • gift of the nile
    • egyptians relied on the nile to bring in fertile soil that was necessary and dependent on for agriculture
    • nile was a means of stability
  3. Narmar palette
    • - (ca 3100 BCE)
    • - dated to be of the predynastic period when the first pharoah narmar was in rule and said to have been responsible for unifying two kingdoms (upper & lower egypt)

    - Although king narmar was pictured in several scenes on the palette there is a number of theories for its meanings. possible interpretation is the unification of upper and lower egypt
  4. Serekh
    - early symbol of egyptian kingship with a horus falcon on top usually representing the kings palace

    - pharoahs in 1st and 2nd dynasty were buried in Abydos, oldest city in ancient Egypt, in shaft tombs called Mastaba's that is decorated like a palace
  5. explain the development of the great pyramids?
    • 1.) To understand the development of
    • pyramid building we must look to a time before they were built.

    • Pyramids dont just rise out of nowhere.
    • They are but one part of a much larger funerary complex

    2.) in the 3rd dynasty using the concept of the mastaba, an egyptian tomb with flat roof, Pharoah Djoser commissioned a pharoah architect, Imhotep, to build him a pyramid. Takes the Mastabaand places one layer on top of the other. Hence forming steps that is known as Djosers stepped pyramid , one of the first pyramids in the world (2691-2625)

    3.) (2613-2589 BC) In the 4th dynasty, king Sneferu set out to build a pyramid and had 3 built over his time. Used the same concept out of stone, but with straighter sides. His pyramid had a bend in its shape that he did not favor so he built another which we refer to as a "true pyramid"

    4.) 2558-2532 BC, Khafre built the second largest pyramid in Giza. Khufu the first and Menkaure the last and smallest of the great pyramids, but most elaborate.
  6. manetho
    • - egyptian priest and historian in the 3rd century BC that set off to write the history of egypt.
    • - Wrote against herodotus, but dont have his original work (we only know about his idead through other writers that quoted him)
  7. Mentuhotep
    • (2060-2010 BCE)
    • - First pharoah of middle kingdom. after period of pyramid building turmoil arises and local nomarchs begin to insert their influence and are a continued threat to the power of the pharoah
    • - Mentuhotep unifies land and restores pharaonic rule thus styling himself as "living god"/Sematawy (one who unites two lands)
    • - didnt take the risk of building large pyramids, but invested in mortuary temples or saff tombs
  8. Amenemhet III & Amenemhet IV
    • reverted to pyramid building with ruble cores.
    • constant struggle between pharaoh & high ruling officials

    hyksos were foreign groups associated also with egypts foreign rule. They set up in the nile delta
  9. seqenenre
    • king who reigned in the end part of the hyksos dynasty
    • assumed to have died in battle due to his wounds
  10. The new Kingdom
    • hyksos were expelled
    • started building tombs
  11. hatshepsut
    • female but not first female pharoah
    • important as to how she gained the thrown
    • her father was tuthmosis I who was greatly concerned with his succession so he made his daughter hatshepsut marry his son, her brother, hatshepsut II.
    • tuthmosis II also concerned about succession therefore has his son tuthmosis III crowned as a child to stall any plans Hatsheput has (power for women were bound up bc of the succession of the pharaoh)
    • Tuthmosis III was very young when his father died so Hatshepsut ruled for him and makes an image for herself.
    • Hatshepsut makes up a thing such as the birth relief that states that she is divine and styles herself as pharaoh
    • When she dies tuthmosis III tries to erase her from egypts memory
  12. Tuthmosis III
    • referred to as napolean of egypt
    • spends time in military
    • expands borders of egypt; makes it an empire
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archaeology - Egypt
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