Psychology Exam 2

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  1. Everything psychological is simultaneously
  2. Study the links between our biological and our behavior
    Biological psychologists
  3. Are the cells in the brain
    • Neurons
    • 100 billion
  4. Support cells
    • Glial cells
    • 90%
  5. The cell's life- support center
    Cell body
  6. Receive messages from other cells
  7. Passes messages away from the cell body to the other neurons, muscles, or glands
  8. Action potential, electrical signal traveling down the axon
    Neural impulse
  9. Form junctions with other cells
    Terminal branches of axon
  10. Covers the axon of some neurons and helps speed neural impulses
    Myelin sheath
  11. Gap between neurons
  12. Chemicals released into the synapse
  13. These act as excitatory or inhibitory signals for the next neuron, executive functioning putting breaks on neurons
  14. Affects  mood, hunger, sleep and arousal
  15. Undersupply linked to depression, some antidepressant drugs raise these levels
    • Serotonin
    • SSRI- selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors
  16. Influences movement, learning, attention and emotion
    Dopamine (reward chemical)
  17. Oversupply linked to schizophrenia, undersupply linked to tremors and decreased mobility in Parkinson's disease
    Dopamine (reward chemical)
  18. Drug taken to treat Parkinson's disease, side affect could be gambling addiction
  19. Depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety
    Opiate drugs (opium, morphine, heroin)
  20. The brain has its own opiates
  21. Controls self-regulated action of internal organs and glands
  22. Controls voluntary movements of skeletal muscles
  23. Sympathetic
  24. Parasympathetic
  25. A set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream
    Endocrine system
  26. Are chemicals messengers manufactured by endocrine glands
  27. Brain region controlling the pituitary gland; master gland
  28. Inner part helps trigger the "flight or fight" response
    Adrenal glands
  29. Secretes many different hormones, some of which affect other glands
    Pituitary glands
  30. Survival- eat and move
  31. Emotions, connections, rewards
  32. Thinking, planning, deciding
    Neocortex "thinking"
  33. The brain's oldest and innermost region, begins where the spinal cord enters the skull
  34. The base of the brainstem; controls heart rate and breathing
  35. Helps coordinate movements
  36. Sensory switchboard; sends sensory information to the cortex
  37. Responsible for wakefulness
    Reticular formation
  38. Voluntary and unconscious movement, means little brain
  39. Coordinates voluntary but unconscious movement and helps process and store unconscious memories
  40. Helps judge time, discriminate sounds and textures and control emotions
  41. Lies in between the evolutionarily oldest and newest brain areas
    • Limbic system
    • "limbus" means "border"
  42. Associated with basic/primitive emotions and drives and memory formation
    Limbic system
  43. Limbic system includes:
    • Amygdala
    • Hypothalamus
    • Hippocampus
  44. Processes conscious episodic memories
  45. Animals or humans who lose or damage their hippocampus may lose the ability to
    Form new memories of facts and events
  46. Two lima- bean- sized clusters, one in each hemisphere
  47. Linked to aggression and fear
  48. Directs body maintenance activities (eating, drinking, stable body temperature)
  49. Hypothalamus helps govern endocrine system (via pituitary gland), linked to
  50. Stimulation of part of the hypothalamus linked to
  51. Contains networks or neurons responsible for perception, thinking, speaking and more
    Cerebral cortex
  52. Body's ultimate control and information- processing center
    Cerebral cortex
  53. Thin layer of interconnected neurons covering the cerebral hemispheres
    • Cerebral cortex
    • "cortex" means "bark"
  54. The brain has what two hemispheres
    • Right
    • Left
  55. Each hemisphere is divided into four lobes
    • Frontal (reasoning, planning, logic)
    • Temporal (processing, language, hearing)
    • Parietal (association)
    • Occipital (vision)
  56. Shows increased activity in the visual cortex when a person looks at a photograph
    fMRI scans
  57. Left hemisphere section controls the body's right side
    Motor cortex
  58. Left hemisphere section receives input from the body's right side
    Sensory cortex
  59. Receives written words as visual stimulation
    Visual cortex
  60. Transforms visual representations into an auditory code
    Angular gyrus
  61. Interprets auditory code
    Wernicke's area
  62. Controls speech muscles via the motor cortex
    Broca's area
  63. Word is pronounced
    Motor cortex
  64. Phineas Gage had damage to
    Frontal lobe
  65. This 6 year-old had a hemispherectomy to end
    Life-threatening seizures
  66. The brain often self-repairs by reorganizing existing tissue
  67. The brain sometimes attempts to mend itself by
    Neurogenesis (producing new neurons)
  68. Originate deep in the brain and then migrate elsewhere
    Baby neurons
  69. When a person feels an absent limb, often times feels painful
    Phantom limb
  70. Nerves to and from each side of the brain connect to the opposite side of the brain
    Hemisphere crossover
  71. Quick, literal language processing
    Left hemisphere
  72. Spatial reasoning, perceptual tasks such as copying drawings, recognizing faces, perceiving differences and emotions, expressing emotion
    Right hemisphere
  73. Connects two hemispheres of the brain, researches cut this to control seizures from severe epilepsy
    Corpus callosum
  74. These split brain patients had their seizures disappear and seemed mostly normal; some split brain patients complain that
    Their left hand seem to have a "mind of its own"
  75. Our awareness of ourselves and our environment
  76. Focusing conscious awareness on a single particular stimulus
    Selective attention
  77. Failure to see visible objects when our attention is directed elsewhere; magic tricks
    Inattentional blindness
  78. We have an internal biological clock, our regular body occurs on a 24-hour cycle, involves cycles of body temperature, arousal, and mental activity; morning lark, night owl
    Circadian rhythm
  79. We cycle through the stage of sleep about every
    90 minutes
  80. As the night goes on, more time is spent in and less in deep sleep
    • REM sleep
    • Rapid Eye Movement
  81. Slowed breathing, irregular brain waves, hallucinations/images
    Stage 1 sleep
  82. More fully asleep but still could be awakened
    Stage 2 sleep
  83. A transition to stage 4 (omitted in some models)
    Stage 3 sleep
  84. Such deep sleep that many kids wet the bed, yet you can waken to baby's cry, sleep talking and walking
    Stage 4 sleep
  85. Recurring sleep stage during which dreams occur
    REM sleep
  86. Muscles are relaxed; brainstem blocks motor cortex activity, heart rate increases, breathing rapid and irregular, often related to dreams
    REM sleep
  87. Sleep physically restores the brain, repairing tissues, mopping up free radicals, builds memories and enables creative insight, growth hormone is produced during deep sleep
    Sleep's functions
  88. Suppresses immune system, alters metabolism and hormonal function (high blood pressure, memory impairment), weight gain- increase ghrelin (hunger hormone) decrease leptin (feeling full hormone)
    Effects of inadequate sleep
  89. Worsened by alcohol and sleep aids, which reduce REM sleep and require increasing amounts to induce sleep
  90. Uncontrollable sleep attacks, sometimes lapsing directly into REM sleep
  91. Waking repeatedly to gasp for oxygen as breathing stops during sleep; sleep is not restful
    • Sleep apnea
    • "apnea" means with no breath
  92. A sequence of images, emotions and thoughts passing through a sleeping person's or other animal's mind
  93. What from our sleeping environment may be integrated into a dream story
    Sensory stimuli
  94. Dreams act to discharge feelings that cannot be expressed in public
    Freud's wish-fulfillment
  95. Dreams may help sift, sort and fix the day's events in memory
  96. Research shows REM sleep is important for
    Memory consolidation
  97. Dreams allow for useful neural pathways to develop
    Physiological function
  98. Dreams are our brain trying to make sense of random neural activity
    Activation- synthesis
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Psychology Exam 2
Intro to Psychology- Exam 2
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