Block One Lecture 5

  1. Prokaryotes versus Eukaryotes
    pre nucleus versus true nucleus
  2. Bacteria can be __ or __.

    All are __. Why?
    • bacteria 
    • archaea

    prokaryotes; thy have genetic material, but no nucleus
  3. Are bacteria less complex cells?
    you can say that, but, in some areas, they are more complex
  4. Prokaryotes versus Eukaryotes

    1) Chromosomes?
    • Pro: one large, circular chromosome in the nucleoid region
    • Euk: paired chromosomes (# varies based on the species)
  5. Pro vs. Euk

    Location of chromosome
    Pro: kind of floating around in teh cytosol; scavengers for genetic materia

    Euk: in a nuclear membrane in the nucleus
  6. What can bacteria do?
    acquire genetic material from their environment, whether its from a different organism or the same (manipulation)
  7. What are their cell walls made of?
    peptidoglycan= NAM and NAG
  8. How do prokarytoes reproduce?
    binary fission
  9. Depending on the number of __, the giant chromosome copies everything. __ is not guaranteed to be replicated.
    • extrachromosomal DNA
    •  x2
  10. What is associated with eukaryotic chromosomes?


    mitosis; two genetically identical cell
  11. Four basic shapes of bacterial cells

    True or False: Only some bacterial cells in the domain Bacteria will exhibit these shapes.
    • 1) circles: cocci
    • 2) rod-shaped: bacilli
    • 3) commas: vibrio
    • 4) corkscrew shaped: spirochetes

    False: ALl bacteria in domain Bacteria will hae one of these (with some exceptions0
  12. Explain the clumping aspects of the shapes
    commas are always single; they never exist in clumps

    spirochetes are always single as well
  13. What are the shapes that are only in archaea?
    stella (stars)

    Haloarcula (squares)
  14. Archaea have ridiculous __.

    Achaea have __ and, as humans, how are we useful for them?
    growth environments (ex: extremophiles)

    • abnormal growth requirements
    • not useful since we are not great hosts
  15. Most bacteria are __. Some are __ and can have __.
    monomorphic (one shape)


    dynamic amoeboid shapes
  16. Arrangmenents

    - the order of the circles or rods

    What are the three arrangements?
    • pairs
    • clusters
    • chains
  17. Explain pairs
    tetrads can exist (only cocci grow in tetrads or carcinea (8)

    pairs are diplococci or diplobacilli
  18. Explain clusters/
    • bunches of circles--> only circles do cluster, like grapes
    • staphylococci
  19. Explain chains.
    Strepto= large chains of bacteria

    • streptococci: large chains of circles
    • streptobacilli: large chains of rods
  20. What are the outermost three structures that they can have. How many can they have? All of these are __.
    Outermost three structures: glycocalyx, capsule, slime layer

    they can have one or none, but not two or three

    gene products
  21. Glycocalyx
    extracellular polysaccharide (bioglobe) that allow bacteria to attach
  22. Capsule
    • insulates cell from its environment
    • encapsulates
    • organized/heat
    • prevents environmental forces from damaging bacteria
  23. Slime layer/ slime coat
    • allows invasion of immune system
    • slippery
    • advantageous in terms of growth and longetivity
  24. Flagella
    - organization of __; __; bonds are __
    - contains __. 
    - allow __
    - function __
    • filament
    • primary sequence
    • a tad different

    basal body

    movement toward or away from stimulus

    similar, but structure different
  25. Arrangements of flagella
    one single polar= monotrichous

    2: amphitrichous

    at pole of cell

    flagella al over: peritriochous
  26. Flagella proteins are __. 
    - Attached to __
    - Flagella are __

    - What does the immune system have to do with it?
    • H antigens 
    • cell
    • one mechanism that immune systems can watch/ detect stimuli
    • immune system will pick up specificity because of the pH
  27. Flagella __, alowing __.

    allowing rough straight motion
  28. - amphitrichous flagella
    A single flagellum (or multiple flagella; see below) can extend from both ends of the cell
  29. lophotrichous
    Several flagella (tuft) can extend from one end or both ends of the cell -

    - three or four at one pole
  30. monotrichous
    one single polar flagella
  31. Flagella is usually only on __, not __.
    • rods 
    • circles

    act as a propellar together; rught straight motion
  33. Amphitrichous with two on each end can
    undergo running or tumbling ; can change direction

    better at tumbling
  34. peritrichous flagella
    4. Multiple flagella may be randomly distributed over the entire bacterial cell

    peritrichous are excellent at both tumbling and runnign
  35. Axial filaments (aka: __)

    Explain it.

    hair is anchored at one polar end of the cell; inserted into corkscrew

    allows for corscrew to turn and run

    only in spirochetes
  36. __ allow attachment. 

    Explain them.

    fimbriae are long strands with same diameter

    allow attachment to environment
  37. When flagella are in unison, __
    When not in unison, __
    • run
    • tumbling
  38. Peritrichous best at __

    Monotrichous and lopho best at __

    both running and tumbling


    good at running; tumbling is okay
  39. The axial filament is __

    Bacterium can go through a __
    is threaded through the corscrew

    rhine like motion; turn and run
  40. Fimbriae is
    proteinaceous hair

    long, very thin, proteinaceous structures or varying sizes, but same diameter; fine hair
  41. What do fimbriae allow?
    allow attachment to a target

    most are in rods

    it is used as a static attachment
  42. Pili

    - describe

    - connect

    - what it does
    • if present (mostly in E. coli), it is one: a pilus
    • short protenacieous tubelike structure 

    used to conenct to the ecoli cell that doesn't have the structure

    doing this enables conjugation adn exchagne of genetic material
Card Set
Block One Lecture 5
Test One