Prokaryotes versus Eukaryotes
pre nucleus versus true nucleus
Bacteria can be __ or __.
All are __. Why?
prokaryotes; thy have genetic material, but no nucleus
Are bacteria less complex cells?
you can say that, but, in some areas, they are more complex
Prokaryotes versus Eukaryotes
- Pro: one large, circular chromosome in the nucleoid region
- Euk: paired chromosomes (# varies based on the species)
Pro vs. Euk
Location of chromosome
Pro: kind of floating around in teh cytosol; scavengers for genetic materia
Euk: in a nuclear membrane in the nucleus
What can bacteria do?
acquire genetic material from their environment, whether its from a different organism or the same (manipulation)
What are their cell walls made of?
peptidoglycan= NAM and NAG
How do prokarytoes reproduce?
Depending on the number of __, the giant chromosome copies everything. __ is not guaranteed to be replicated.
What is associated with eukaryotic chromosomes?
mitosis; two genetically identical cell
Four basic shapes of bacterial cells
True or False: Only some bacterial cells in the domain Bacteria will exhibit these shapes.
- 1) circles: cocci
- 2) rod-shaped: bacilli
- 3) commas: vibrio
- 4) corkscrew shaped: spirochetes
False: ALl bacteria in domain Bacteria will hae one of these (with some exceptions0
Explain the clumping aspects of the shapes
commas are always single; they never exist in clumps
spirochetes are always single as well
What are the shapes that are only in archaea?
Archaea have ridiculous __.
Achaea have __ and, as humans, how are we useful for them?
growth environments (ex: extremophiles)
- abnormal growth requirements
- not useful since we are not great hosts
Most bacteria are __. Some are __ and can have __.
monomorphic (one shape)
dynamic amoeboid shapes
- the order of the circles or rods
What are the three arrangements?
tetrads can exist (only cocci grow in tetrads or carcinea (8)
pairs are diplococci or diplobacilli
- bunches of circles--> only circles do cluster, like grapes
Strepto= large chains of bacteria
- streptococci: large chains of circles
- streptobacilli: large chains of rods
What are the outermost three structures that they can have. How many can they have? All of these are __.
Outermost three structures: glycocalyx, capsule, slime layer
they can have one or none, but not two or three
extracellular polysaccharide (bioglobe) that allow bacteria to attach
- insulates cell from its environment
- prevents environmental forces from damaging bacteria
Slime layer/ slime coat
- allows invasion of immune system
- advantageous in terms of growth and longetivity
- organization of __; __; bonds are __
- contains __.
- allow __
- function __
- primary sequence
- a tad different
movement toward or away from stimulus
similar, but structure different
Arrangements of flagella
one single polar= monotrichous
at pole of cell
flagella al over: peritriochous
Flagella proteins are __.
- Attached to __
- Flagella are __
- What does the immune system have to do with it?
- H antigens
- one mechanism that immune systems can watch/ detect stimuli
- immune system will pick up specificity because of the pH
Flagella __, alowing __.
allowing rough straight motion
- amphitrichous flagella
A single flagellum (or multiple flagella; see below) can extend from both ends of the cell
Several flagella (tuft) can extend from one end or both ends of the cell -
- three or four at one pole
one single polar flagella
Flagella is usually only on __, not __.
IF MONO OR LOPHO,
THEY ONLY RUN
act as a propellar together; rught straight motion
Amphitrichous with two on each end can
undergo running or tumbling ; can change direction
better at tumbling
4. Multiple flagella may be randomly distributed over the entire bacterial cell
peritrichous are excellent at both tumbling and runnign
Axial filaments (aka: __)
hair is anchored at one polar end of the cell; inserted into corkscrew
allows for corscrew to turn and run
only in spirochetes
__ allow attachment.
fimbriae are long strands with same diameter
allow attachment to environment
When flagella are in unison, __
When not in unison, __
Peritrichous best at __
Monotrichous and lopho best at __
both running and tumbling
good at running; tumbling is okay
The axial filament is __
Bacterium can go through a __
is threaded through the corscrew
rhine like motion; turn and run
long, very thin, proteinaceous structures or varying sizes, but same diameter; fine hair
What do fimbriae allow?
allow attachment to a target
most are in rods
it is used as a static attachment
- what it does
- if present (mostly in E. coli), it is one: a pilus
- short protenacieous tubelike structure
used to conenct to the ecoli cell that doesn't have the structure
doing this enables conjugation adn exchagne of genetic material