Ecology Chapter 1 Ms.Day

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  1. Acid Precipitation
    • Def: Any sort of precipitation such as rain, snow, and fog being unaturally acidic, as a result from the gases in the air.
    • A pH scale is used to measure the acidity of the acid rain and other substances.
  2. Greenhouse Effect
    Def: The earth being warmed up as a result to the greenhouse gases.

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  3. Greenhouse Gases
    • Def: Atmospheric gas that inhibits heat from escaping the atmosphere, increasing the temperature of the atmosphere. 
    • E.g. carbon dioxide, methane, water vapou r
  4. Fermentation
    Def: A process in which energy is released from organic molecules, expecially carbohydrates.
  5. Cellular Respiration
    • Def: An operation that releases glucose/sugar.
    • The most common and efficient way to extract energy from glucose.
  6. Biomagnifaction
    Def: increase in the concentration of toxin from when it moves from one trophic level to the other.

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  7. Bioaccumulation
    Def: A process where materials are ingested by an organism by a greater rate than they are being elimanted.
  8. Trophic Efficiency
    • Def: A measure of how much energy or biomass is transferred from one trophic level to the next.
    • * Only about 10% of energy is passed on to the next level ( reason why there is less carnivores than plants)*
  9. Biomass
    • Def: Total mass of organisms in given areas and volumes.
  10. Tropic Level
    • Def: Organisms grouped into categories based on how they gain energy.
    • E.g. Primary producers make their own food and energy, while consumers have eat other organisms to survive because they can't make their own food.

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  11. Photosynthesis
    • Def: The process in which mostly green plants use sunlight to synthesize food.
    • Word Equation: Carbon dioxide + water (light/chlorophyll also needed) = glucose + oxygen
    • Chemical Equation: 6CO2 + 6H2O ⇒ C6H12O2 + 6O2

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  12. Eutrophication
    • Def: From excessive richness of nutrients in a lake and other bodies of water it leads to a rapid growth of plant life and death of animal life due to lack of oxygen.
    • E.g. when a lot of fertilizer gets into the water it causes algae to grow, which inhibits the sunlight from reaching the aquatic plants, causing the death of many fish due to lack of oxygen.
  13. Nutrients
    • Def: The chemicals needed by living things to survive. They can be found throughout earth's ecosysyems. 
    • E.g. zinc, iron, calcium, sulfur.
  14. Biosphere
    • Def: The parts of the surface, hydrosphere, and atmosphere of the earth occupied my many different living organisms. 
    • Includes life in all other abiotic spheres and the soil, water, and air.
  15. Atmosphere
    • Def: The layers of gases surrounding the earth including air.
    • Related Terms: biosphere, lithosphere,  atmosphere, hydrosphere
  16. Hydrosphere
    • Def: All the waters on earth's surface.
    • E.g. lakes, oceans, rivers.
  17. Lithosphere
    • Def:  The rigid hard part on the outer part of the earth's surface consisting of rocks and soil.                                                          
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  18. Abiotic
    • Def: The non-living parts of an ecosystem that aLloyd living organisms depend on to survive.
    • E.g. air (oxygen), water (H20), light, soil and chemical nutrients.
  19. Biotic
    • Def: All living or recently living organisms and parts of an ecosystem including interactions between living things in ecosystems.
    • E.g. animals, fungi (consumers), plants (producers), bacteria.
    • 3 different types of biotic interactions include: Symbiosis, predation, competition
  20. Sustainable Ecosystem
    • Def: An ecosystem capable of sustaining and withstanding pressure while giving support to a variety of ecosystems. 
    • E.g. animals that migrate need more than one ecosystem
    • All living organisms absolutely depend on sustainable ecosystems to survive
  21. Ecosystem
    • Def: A biological community of interacting organisms (abiotic, biotic) and their habitat/environment.
    • E.g. pond, desert, forest, savanna, tundra, rain forest.
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Ecology Chapter 1 Ms.Day
Chapter 1 Ecology flash cards
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