Chapter 12

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  1. exerts chemical control over the human body by maintaining the body's internal environment
    endocrine system
  2. it sends directions via chemical signals to the pituitary gland
  3. The pituitary gland is also referred to as the ___
    master gland
  4. chemical signals
  5. stimulates other endocrine glands to secrete their hormones
    pituitary gland
  6. these are ductless glands that secrete their hormones directly into the bloodstream
    endocrine glands
  7. their secretions are transported directly to an organ or the body surface
    exocrine glands
  8. helps to control the concentrations of a number of hormones in our bodies
    negative feedback loop
  9. 3 chemical categories of hormones
    • modified amino acids
    • protein hormones
    • steroid hormones
  10. Hormones that are modified amino acids
    • epinephrine
    • norepinephrine
    • oxytocin
    • vasopressin
  11. Examples of protein hormones
    • insulin
    • gonad-stimulating hormone
    • growth hormone
  12. Examples of steroid hormones
    • cortisol
    • testosterone
    • estrogen
  13. they bind to membrane bound receptor sites on the cells of target organs
    • modified amino acids
    • protein hormones
  14. diffuse across the cell membrane and bind to intracellular receptor molecules
    steroid hormones
  15. they can diffuse across the lining of the stomach and intestine and get to the circulatory system
    steroid hormones
  16. They can be taken orally
    steroid hormones
  17. they must be injected in the body to treat illnesses
    • modified amino acids
    • protein hormone
  18. they cannot diffuse across intestinal lining because they are not soluble to lipids
    steroid hormones
  19. it is the inferior part of the diencephalon
  20. it controls the secretion of the pituitary gland
  21. it extends from the floor of the hypothalamus connecting it to the pituitary gland
  22. it send neural and chemical signals to the pituitary gland
  23. chemical signals that either stimulate or inhibit the release of particular hormone from the pituitary glans
  24. kinds of neurosecretions
    • releasing hormones
    • releasing inhibitory hormones
  25. The endocrine glands include:
    • Pituitary gland
    • Pineal gland
    • thyroid gland
    • parathyroid glands
    • thymus gland
    • adrenal glands
    • islets of Langerhans
    • ovaries
    • testes
  26. the pituitary gland is also called ___
  27. it is a small gland about the size of pea
    pituitary gland
  28. the pituitary glands affect these endocrine glands
    • ovary
    • testes
    • adrenal cortex
    • thyroid gland
  29. it is situated in a depression of the sphenoid bone below the hypothalamus
    pituitary gland
  30. this produces 7 hormones
    anterior pituitary lobe
  31. is stimulates cell metabolism in most tissues of the body, causing cells to divide and increase in size
    growth hormone
  32. this happens when a young person suffers from too little GH
    pituitary dwarfism
  33. he is the famous pituitary dwarf
    Charles Stratton
  34. Charles Stratton was also known as ___, who was emploed by ___ in his circus. He died at the age of ___ and was ___ tall
    • Tom Thumb
    • P.T. Barnum
    • 45
    • less than 1 meter
  35. This occurs when there's too much GH during childhood
  36. This results from the excess secretion of GH after childhood
  37. it is influenced by nutrition, genetics and sex hormones during puberty
  38. it stimulates the thyroid gland to produce its hormone
    thyroid-stimulating hormone
  39. it stimulates the anterior pituitary lobe to secrete thyroid-stimulating hormone
    thyrotropin-releasing horone
  40. it stimulates the adrenal cortex to stimulate its hormone
    andrenocorticotropic hormone
  41. hormone of the adrenal cortex
  42. it regulates the secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone
    corticotropin-releasing hormone
  43. it helps reduce inflammation as well as stimulation the adrenal cortex
    adrenocorticotropic hormone
  44. it increases the production of melanin in melanocytes
    melanocyte-stimulations hormone
  45. it stimulates the development of follicles in the ovaries
    follicle-stimulating hormone
  46. it stimulates the production of sperm cells in the seminiferous tubules of the testes
    follicle-stimulating hormone
  47. it stimulates the ovulation in the female ovary and production of progesterone
    Luteinizing hormone
  48. it helps maintain pregnancy
    Luteinizing hormone
  49. it is the female sex hormone
  50. it stimulates the synthesis of testosterone to maintain sperm production
    Luteinizing hormone
  51. Lactogenic hormone is also known as ___
  52. it stimulates the milk production in mammary glands
    Lactogenic hormone
  53. it maintains the progesterone levels following the ovulation and during the pregnancy in women
    Lactogenic hormone
  54. it increases males' sensitivity to luteinizing hormone and may cause a decrease in male sex hormones
    Lactogenic Hormone
  55. The 7 hormones of the anterior pituitary lobe
    • Growth hormone
    • Thyroid-stimulating hormone
    • Adrenocorticotropic hormone
    • Melanocyte-stimulating hormone
    • Follicle-stimulating hormone
    • Luteinizing hormone
    • Lactogenic hormone
  56. it consists primarily of nerve fibers and neuroglial cells that support nerve fibers
    Posterior pituitary lobe
  57. it is primarily glandular epithelial cells
    Anterior pituitary lobe
  58. **note**
    special neurons --> hormones --> pituitary stalk --> posterior lobe --> secretory granules
  59. Antidiuretic hormone is also known as ___
  60. it maintains the body's water balance by promoting increased water re-absorption in the nephrons of the kidney
    antidiuretic hormone
  61. a condition resulting from the deficiency of antidiuretic hormone
    diabetes insipidus
  62. Individuals with diabetes insipidus produce ___ liters of urine daily
  63. it regulates the secretion of the antidiuretic hormone
  64. it detects changes in the osmotic pressure of the body
  65. it stimulates the contraction of smooth muscles in the wall of the uterus
  66. is causes the contraction of cells in the mammary glands causing milk ejection
  67. milk ejection
  68. Hormones of the posterior pituitary lobe
    • Antidiuretic hormone
    • Oxytocin
  69. it consists of two lobes connected by isthmus
    thyroid gland
  70. it is a small band that connects the lobes of the thyroid gland
  71. it is highly vascular, large endocrine gland covered with a capsule of connective tissue
    thyroid gland
  72. These make up the thyroid gland
  73. simple cuboidal epithelium that produces and secretes the thyroid hormones
  74. The thyroid gland requires ___ to function
  75. this forms when there is an inadequate amount of iodine intake
  76. hormones of the thyroid gland
    • thyroixine
    • triiodothyronine
    • calcitonin
  77. thyroxine is also known as ___
  78. it contains four iodine atoms
  79. it contains three iodine atoms
  80. it is the lack or low level of thyroid hormones
  81. a child with this condition is mentally retarded and does not grow a normal stature
  82. it is the too much secretion of thyroid hormones
  83. it is often associated with an enlarged thyroid gland or goiter and the bulging of the eyeballs
    Grave's disease
  84. this hormone lowers the calcium and phosphate ion concentration
  85. these are glands about the size of raisins that are embedded in  the posterior surface of the thyroid gland
    parathyroid gland
  86. these are secreting cells that consists of the parathyroid glands
    • chief cells
    • oxyphil cells
  87. hormone of the parathyroid gland
    parathyroid hormone or parathormone
  88. it inhibits the activity of osteoblasts and causes osteoclasts to break down bone matrix tissue, thus releasing calcium and phosphate to the blood
  89. it raises blood calcium to normal levels
  90. **note**
    • calcitonin lowers the calcium and phosphate ion concentration in the blood
    • parathormone raises blood calcium to normal levels
  91. it increases the absorption of calcium by the intestines
    Vitamin D
  92. it is necessary for the first stage of vitamin D synthesis
    Ultraviolet light
  93. it can be caused by a tumor in the parathyroid gland
  94. This results in:
    bones becoming soft and deformed, cause muscles to be less excitable , may result to kidney stones
  95. this can be caused by the surgical removal of the thyroid and parathyroid glands
  96. it reduces osteoclast activity and reduces vitamin D formation
  97. adrenal glands are also known as ___
    suprarenal glands
  98. they are small glands found on top of each kidney
    adrenal glands
  99. inner part of adrenal gland
    adrenal medulla
  100. outer part of adrenal gland
    adrenal cortex
  101. the adrenal medulla produces large amounts of ___ or ___ and small amounts of ___
    • adrenaline
    • epinephrine
    • norepinephrine
  102. it makes up the bulk of the adrenal gland
    adrenal cortex
  103. Layers of adrenal cortex
    • inner
    • middle
    • outer
  104. the outer layer secretes
    • mineralocorticoid hormones
    • aldosterone
  105. they regulate the concentration of mineral electrolytes
    mineralocorticoid hormones
  106. it regulates the sodium reabsorption and potassium excretion by the kidneys
  107. it is secreted by the middle layer of the adrenal cortex
  108. cortisol is also known as ___
  109. synthesizes glucose, breaks down fats, breaks down proteins
  110. helps reduce the inflammatory response
  111. given as treatment for arthritis
  112. discovered how to synthetically produce cortisone
    Dr. Percy Julian
  113. hormone produced by the inner adrenal cortex
  114. male sex hormones
  115. these stimulate the development of male sexual characteristics
  116. these stimulate the female sex drive
  117. bronzing of the skin
    Addison's disease
  118. a condition when the  adrenal cortex fails to produce enough hormones
    Addison's disease
  119. a condition caused by too much secretion from the adrenal cortex
    Cushing's syndrome
  120. puffy skin, obesity, moon shaped face, skin atrophy, mestrual problems
    Cushing's syndrome
  121. produce pancreatic juice
  122. produce hormones insulin an glucagon
    islets of Langerhans
  123. it is flattened, eloganted and is found behind the stomach
  124. Pancreatic islets/ islets of Langerhans:
    • Alpha cells
    • Beta cells
  125. secrete hormone glucagon
    Alpha cells
  126. Secrete hormone insulin
    beta cells
  127. promotes glucose in the blood to be transformed in the liver into glycogen
  128. it stimulates the liver to convert the stored glycogen into glucose
  129. when glucose concentration gets low during exercise or in between meals
  130. lowering of blood pH
  131. produces sperm as an exocrine gland and produces male sex hormones as endocrine glands
  132. prnicipal male sex hormones
  133. it is responsible for the development of male reproductive structures
  134. promote the development of female reproductive structures
    • estrogen
    • progesterone
  135. it is a bilobed mass of tissue found in the mediatinum
    thymus gland
  136. the thymus gland secretes this hormone
  137. it causes the production of T lymphocytes
  138. these cells protect the body against foreign microorganisms
    T lymphocytes
  139. it is a pinecone-shaped structure found between the cerebral hemispheres
    pineal gland
  140. these hormones are produced by the pineal gland
    • melatonin
    • serotonin
  141. it is secreted directly into the cerebrospinal fluid
  142. it inhibits the secretion of melatonin
    bright light
  143. it inhibits the function of the reproductive organs
  144. it regulates circadian rhythms
  145. affects our sleep-wake patterns
  146. it stimulates the smooth muscle contraction and inhibits gastric secretions
Card Set
Chapter 12
The Endocrine System
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