The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends breast milk only for the first ___ months of life and breast milk as ___.
the only source of milk for the second 6 months
T/F: The benefits of breast milk continue after weaning and extend beyond childhood.
___ and ___ are called the mothering hormones because they affect the mother’s emotions as well as her physical state.
Feeding-readiness cues include ___ or ___ movements, ___, the ___, and ___.
The four basic positions for breastfeeding are the ___, ___, ___, and ___.
football or clutch-hold
modified cradle or across-the-lap
Newborns need to breastfeed ___ to ___ times a day.
8 to 12
Initially, preterm milk contains higher concentrations of ___ (8 things) than term milk.
T/F:Depending on gestational age and physical condition, many preterm infants can breastfeed for some of their daily feedings.
Engorgement typically occurs ___ after birth and lasts ___.
3 to 5 days
about 24 hours
The four main categories of infant formulas are ___, ___, ___, and ___.
cow’s milk–based formulas
casein- or whey-hydrolysate formulas
The birth weight of a breastfed newborn was 8 pounds, 4 ounces. On the third day the newborn’s weight was 7 pounds, 12 ounces. On the basis of this finding, the nurse should:
B. Encourage the mother to continue breastfeeding because it is effective in meeting the newborn’s nutrient and fluid needs.
Weight loss of 8 ounces falls within the 5% to 10% expected weight loss from birth weight during the first few days of life, which for this newborn would be 6.6 to 13.2 ounces. Breastfeeding is effective at this time.
Which action of a breastfeeding mother indicates the need for further instruction?
A. Holds breast with four fingers along bottom and thumb at top
B .Leans forward to bring breast toward the baby
C. Stimulates the rooting reflex and then inserts nipple and areola into newborn’s open mouth
D. Puts her finger into newborn’s mouth before removing breast
B .Leans forward to bring breast toward the baby
T/F: Holding the breast with four fingers along the bottom and the thumb at top is a correct technique.
T/F: Placing the finger in the mouth to remove the baby from the breast is correct technique.
The nurse taught new parents the guidelines to follow regarding the bottle feeding of their newborn. They will be using formula from a can of concentrate. The parents would demonstrate an understanding of the nurse’s instructions if they:
C. Wash the top of the can and the can opener with soap and water before opening the can.
Benefits to the mother associated with breastfeeding include all except it:
A. Is an effective method of birth control.
T/F: Women who breastfeed display an increase in bone density.
T/F: Women who breastfeed report a quicker weight loss postpartum.
With regard to the special qualities of human breast milk, nurses should be aware that:
A. Frequent feedings during predictable growth spurts stimulate increased milk production.
Growth spurts (at 10 days, 3 weeks, 6 weeks, 3 months) usually last 24 to 48 hours, after which infants resume normal feeding and milk production returns to previous production level.
Predictable growth spurts (at ___, ___, ___ and ___) usually last ___, after which infants resume normal feeding and milk production returns to previous production level.
24 to 48 hours
T/F: The milk of mothers of preterm infants is different from that of mothers of full-term infants, which is necessary to meet the needs of these newborns.
The composition of milk changes during feeding. The ___ content of the milk ___ as the infant feeds.
Colostrum precedes mature milk and is more concentrated and richer in ___ and ___ (but not ___).
proteins and minerals
Nurses should be able to tell breastfeeding mothers that all of the following are signs that the infant has latched on correctly to her breast except:
A. She hears a clicking or smacking sound when the infant feeds.
Incorrectly latched infants wiil make a clicking or smacking sound that may indicate that the baby is having difficulty ___. The mother should hope to hear the sound of ___.
keeping the tongue out over the lower gum ridge
T/F: Signs that the infant has latched on correctly to her breast: The baby sucks with cheeks rounded, not dimpled.
With regard to basic care of the breastfeeding mother, nurses should be able to advise her that she:
C. Should avoid trying to lose large amounts of weight.
New moms should avoid trying to lose large amounts of weight because?
Large weight loss would release fat-stored contaminants into her breast milk. It would also likely involve eating too little and/or exercising too much.
A breastfeeding mother need add ___ extra calories to her diet to provide extra nutrients for the infant.
only 200 to 500
T/F: With regard to basic care of the breastfeeding mother, nurses should be able to advise her that she can go back to prepregnancy consumption patterns of any drinks as long as she gets enough calcium.
F: This is true only if she doesn’t drink alcohol, limits coffee to no more than two cups (caffeine is also found in chocolate, tea, and some sodas), and reads the herbal tea ingredients carefully.
Examples of appropriate techniques to wake a sleepy infant for breastfeeding include (choose all that apply):
A. Unwrapping the infant.
B. Changing the diaper.
C. Talking to the infant.
D. Slapping the infant's hands and feet.
E. Applying a cold towel to the infant's abdomen.
A, B, C
inadequate emptying of breasts, may be related to engorgement