Child Dev.-1

  1. Child
    Defined as from infancy to puberty
  2. Middle Childhood
    6 to 12
  3. Young Childhood
    2 to 5
  4. Study of development starts with but is not limited to:
    biological structures, psychological traits, behavior, understanding, ways of adapting, emotional,conception, fetal..
  5. John Locke:
    "blank tablet"; role of environment or of experience
  6. Jean-Jacques Rousseau:
    Children are inherently good; if allowed they will develop into generous and moral indiv.
  7. Freud's three parts of personality:
    • id: unconscious--> instant gratification
    • ego: conscious sense of self
    • superego: infancy-childhood; norms and morals in the environment they live in
  8. Freud's 5 stages:
    • 1. Oral: sucking, biting, fixation; 'biting wit'
    • 2. Anal: potty-training; either anal-retentive or anal-expulsive
    • 3. Phallic: parent-child conflict; parent of the same sex is the rival
    • 4. Latency: sexual feelings still unconcious
    • 5. Genital: biological changes that usher adolescnce
  9. If a child has too much or too little grat. of a stage they may become fixated:
  10. Skills for a child has learned to remain unused?
  11. Anthony Bandura:
    Latent learning-->children choose whether or not too engage in the behaviors they learn
  12. Erikson's 8 Stages of Development
    • 1.Trust vs. Mistrust
    • 2. Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt- self control and regulation of behavior
    • 3. Initiative vs. Guilt- planning and attempting
    • 4. Industry vs. Inferiority
    • 5. Identity vs. Role Diffusion: who one is and what one believes in
    • 6. Intimacy vs. Isolation
    • 7. Generativity vs. Stagnation: 'giving back'
    • 8. Ego Integrity vs. Despair: accepting time and place of one's life cycle
  13. Classical conditioning:
    first stimulus is elicited by a second stimulus
  14. Postive reinforcer:
    when applied, increases the frequency of a behavior
  15. negative reinforcer:
    when removed, increases the frequency of a desired behavior
  16. Piaget's Cognitive-Developmental Theory:
    The child's abilities to mentally represent the world and solve problems unfold as a result of the interaction of experience and the maturation of neurological structures.
  17. Ecological Systems Theory:
    addresses aspects of psychological, social, and emotional deve. as well as biological deve.
  18. Microsystem:
    interactions of the child and other people in the home school and peer group
  19. Mesosystem:
    interactions within the microsystem; ex. home and school interact during parent-teahcer conferences.
  20. Exosystem:
    the indirect influence on the child; school, social situations, health care, tv, church, etc..
  21. Macrosystem:
    attitudes and ideologies of the culture and how the child responds.
  22. Chronosystem:
    environmental changes that occur over the life course; ex. divorce
  23. Zone of Proximal Development:
    range of tasks that a child can carry out with the help of someone who's more skilled
  24. Nature and Nuture:
    • Nature: Heredity
    • Nurture: Environmental Influences
  25. Cohort Effect:
    people born at the same time
  26. Variables:
    Mathematical calc. to determine relationships b/w behaviors and or traits
  27. Heredity:
    traits you inherit
  28. Genetics:
    Field within study of biology that studies heredity
  29. Mitosis:
    • -cell division in which each chromosome splits lengthwise.
    • -half of each chrom. combines to make original form and starts to form the new cell.
  30. Meiosis:
    • each pair of chrom. splits and one member of each pair moves to the new cell.
    • -23 chromosomes each
  31. Monozygotic twins:
    • -Zygote divides into two cells that separate and develop into an individual child.
    • - Same genetic makeup (identical twins)
  32. Dizygotic twins:
    • - two ova are produced in the same month and each is fertilized by a diff. sperm.
    • - Fraternal twins
  33. How often do DZ twins occur?
    2/3 of twins pregnancies are DZ twins
  34. Down Syndrome:
    • - caused by an extra chromosome on the 21st pair
    • - have died in their middle-aged years due to cardiovascular problems
    • - deficits in cognitive development, including language and motor dev.
  35. XXY: Klinefelter Syndrome
    less testerone
  36. Turner Syndrome:
    Genitals on females are fully dev. but the ovaries are poorly dev.
  37. What determines when your due date is?
    The date of your last period
  38. Embryonic disk, three layers:
    • 1. Ectoderm
    • 2. Endoderm
    • 3. Mesoderm
  39. What becomes the embryo?
    The blastocyst
  40. How is the embryo first nourished?
    The yolk of the original egg cell
  41. Cephalocaudal:
    Form head to tail
  42. Proximodistal:
    From the inner part of the body outward
  43. Third week:
    Heart begins to beat
  44. Fourth Week:
    Arms, legs, eyes, ears, nose and mouth bud/ form
  45. Eighth Week:
    Arms, legs, eyes, ears, nose and mouth bud/ form
  46. By the end of_________neural tube is producing 400mil neurons a day
    First month
  47. Mullerian:
    Female ducts
  48. Wolffian ducts
    Male ducts
  49. What causes testes to form and sex to be determined?
    Y Chromosome
  50. Environmental agents that can harm the embryo
  51. What are some examples of Sexually Transmitted Infections?
    • 1. Syphilis
    • 2.HIV/AIDS
    • 3. Rubella
Card Set
Child Dev.-1
Child Dev