Ecology Chapter1 Glossary Terms - SNC1DW (Sem1)

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  1. Ecosystem
    • Includes all of the interacting parts of a biological community and its environment
    • E.g. forest, pond, arctic, sea, tundra
  2. Sustainable ecosystem
    Ecosystem that can survive a disaster and supports many different species
  3. Biotic
    • The living parts of an ecosystem
    • E.g. plants, animals, bacteria
  4. Abiotic
    • The non-living parts in an ecosystem
    • E.g. rock, water
  5. Lithospere
    The Earth's hard part (crust)
  6. Hydrosphere
    • All water found on Earth
    • E.g. lakes, oceans, groundwater
  7. Atmosphere
    Layer of gases above Earth's surface
  8. Biosphere
    Regions of Earth where living organisms exist
  9. Nutrients
    • Chemical essential to life
    • Constantly cycled through different ecosystems 
    • E.g. water, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorous
  10. Eutrophication
    • When nutrient levels rise, leads to larger population of primary producers
    • E.g. Algae - excess phosphorous (from fertilizer runoffs)
  11. Photosynthesis
    • When plants convert solar energy energy into chemical energy 
    • 6CO2 + 6H2O  = C6H12O+ 6O2
    • (carbon dioxide+water=glucose and oxygen - chlorophyll and light need)
  12. Trophic level
    • Categories grouping organisms by how they get their energy 
    • E.g. plants make own food = level1; herbivore eats plant = level2
  13. Biomass
    The mass of living cells and tissues assembled by an organism (using solar energy)
  14. Trophic efficiency
    • Measure of amount of energy (biomass) transferred to the higher trophic level 
    • Usually quite inefficient at about 10%
  15. Bioaccumulation
    When materials, usually toxins are taken in faster than eliminated
  16. Biomagnification
    • When level of ingested toxin concentration increases along trophic levels
    • E.g. DDT AND PCBs
  17. Cellular respiration
    • When energy is released - in presence of oxygen (most common/efficient) 
    • Done by: plants, animals, fungi, and other organisms
    • [glucose+oxygen=carbon dioxide+water+ energy]
    • Even though plants create glucose, they still need to extract energy
  18. Fermentation
    • When energy is released - in absence of oxygen
    • Bacteria and some fungi use this method to release energy from glucose
  19. Greenhouse gases
    • Gases in atmosphere which prevent heat from leaving the atmosphere; increase temperature
    • E.g. water vapour, carbon dioxide, methane
    • Similar to the way glass traps heat in a greenhouse
  20. Greenhouse effect
    The warming of Earth as a result of greenhouse gases
  21. Acid precipitation
    • Rain, snow, or fog that is unnaturally acidic because of gases in atmosphere which reacted with water to form acid
    • nitrogen oxide; sulfur dioxide - released when fossil fuels are burned
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Ecology Chapter1 Glossary Terms - SNC1DW (Sem1)
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