Chapter 1

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  1. Ecosystem
    a community of living organisms that interact with each other and their environment

    e.g. Pond, Forest, Mountain
  2. Sustainable Ecosystem
    an ecosystem that can thrive and support itself and its organisms without any external assistance

    e.g. Appalachians
  3. Biotic
    the living parts of an ecosystem

    e.g. Tree, Fish, Fox, Hawk, Rotting Log
  4. Abiotic
    The non-living parts of an ecosystem

    e.g. Water, Rocks, Air
  5. Lithosphere
    • the hard outer part of the Earth
    • crust and mantle
  6. hydrosphere
    • all water found on Earth
    • e.g. lakes, oceans, rivers, ground water
  7. atmosphere
    layer of gases above the earth's surface

    e.g. Oxygen, Hydrogen, Carbon Dioxide
  8. biosphere
    the places on Earth where living organisms live

    e.g. Forest, Oceans
  9. Nutrients
    a chemical that is essential for the growth of living things 

    transfers through the ecosystem

    e.g. Glucose
  10. Eutrophication
    when nutrient levels increase in aquatic ecosystems causing an increase in the growth of primary producers

    e.g. too much phosphorus will cause an overgrowth of algae
  11. Photosynthesis
    a process that changes solar energy into chemical energy to be used as food

    • carbon dioxide + water -> glucose + oxygen
    • (light and chlorophyll are needed)
  12. Trophic Level
    A categorization of organisms based on how they gain their energy

    • e.g. level 1: Primary Producer -  Plant
    •        level 2: Primary Consumer - Cricket
    •        level 3: Secondary Consumer - Rabbit
    •        level 4: Tertiary Consumer - Hawk
  13. Biomass
    total mass of biotic organisms in a certain area

    e.g. the mass of all trees in a forest
  14. Trophic Efficiency
    the amount of energy or biomass transferred from one trophic level to the next higher trophic level

    usually 10% from one level to the next higher level
  15. Bioaccumulation
    when a living thing consumes toxins faster than they are eliminated

    e.g. a fish consuming mercury from pollution
  16. Biomagnification
    when the amount of consumed toxins increases as it moves from one trophic level to the next

    e.g. Heron eating a fish full of mercury and consuming the mercury.
  17. Cellular Respiration
    the process when energy is released from glucose using oxygen

    e.g. Humans use oxygen from cellular respiration
  18. Fermentation
    the process when energy is released from glucose even though oxygen is not present

    e.g. Fungi and bacteria use fermentation to get their energy
  19. Greenhouse Gases
    a gas in the atmosphere that prevents heat from leaving the atmosphere, increasing the temperature of the atmosphere

    e.g. Carbon Dioxide, CFCs, Phosphorus, Nitrous Oxide
  20. Greenhouse Effect
    the warming of the Earth causes by the greenhouse gases, which trap some of the energy that would normally leave the Earth

    e.g. The earth is warming from the greenhouse effect which is melting the polar ice caps
  21. Acid Precipitation
    Precipitation that is unnaturally acidic due to gases in the air

    Gasses such as nitrous oxide and sulfuric oxide

    e.g. Acid rain that kills trees by releasing aluminum in the soil to cover roots so they can't absorb nutrients
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Chapter 1
chapter 1 of ONscience9
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