cardiovascular system flashcards.txt

  1. 1)Differentiate the (coverings)structure and location of the Pericardium, Fibrous Pericardium, Visceral Percardium, and Parietal Pericardium?
  2. Pericardium-double wall, protects heart
    • Fibrous-Strong and dense
    • Visceral-
    • Parietal-
  3. 2) Describe the correlation between the “Pericardial Cavity” and the “Pericardial Sac”?
  4. 22)Describe location and function of the “interventricular Septum”
  5. Separates left and rt ventricles
    23)Describe why the left ventricle is more muscular than the rt ventricle?

    Because it pumps blood to the whole body

    24)Demonstrate flow of blood from Superior Vena Cava to Aorta, indicating every chamber, valve and accessory structure?
  6. Superior Vena Cava>Rt, Atrium>Tricuspid Valve>Rt Ventricle>Pulmonary Semilunar Valve>Pulmonary Trunk>Pulmonary Artery>Aveolar Capillaries(Lungs)>Pulmonary Vein>Lft Atrium>Bicuspid Valve>Lft Ventricle>Aortic Semilunar Valve>Aorta> to the body
    25) Define cardiac cycle:

    The period between the start of one heartbeat and the beginning of the next

    26)Difference between systole and diastole?

    • Systole-contraction(heart emptying)
    • Diastole-relaxing(heart filling)
  7. 27)List 8 phases of the cardiac cycle(in order ) and describe whats happening in each phase?
    • 1)Cardiac Rest-All 4 chambers are relaxed and ventricles are partially filled with blood
    • 2)Atrial Systole- Atria contract, completely filling the ventricles with blood
    • 3)Atrial Diastole-Atrial Systole stops, and atrial diastole begins
    • 4)Ventricular Systole 1st phase-Isoventricular contraction; pushes av valves closed but doesn’t create enough pressure to open semilunar valves
    • 5) Ventricular Systole 2nd phase-Ventricular ejection, rises and exceeds pressure in arteries, the semilunar valves open and blood is forced out of ventricles.
    • 6) Ventricular Diastole-early as ventricles relax pressure drops. Blood flows back against cusps of semilunar valves and forces them closed.
    • 7) Isovolumetric relaxation-blood flows into relaxed atria but AV closed
    • 8) Ventricular diastole(late)- all chambers are relaxed

    Describe what causes the heart sounds?
  8. 1)Lubb(s1)start of ventricular contraction; av closes dupp
    • 2)Dupp(s2)-semilunar valve
    • 3)(s3)-blood flowing into ventricles
    • 4)(s4) atrial contraction
  9. Define the Cardiac Conduction System?
    Distribute impulses over the entire heart
  10. Describe the structures used to initiate and move electrical impulses in the heart from beginning to end.
    • 1.SA Node-Pacemaker of heart
    • 2.AV Node-Relay and Delay
    • 3. AV(Bundle of HIS)-receive impulse from AV Node
    • 4.Bundle Branches-Rapid Venticular Ejection
    • 5.Purkinje Fibers-

    List the two functions of the AV Node
  11. 1.electrical connection from atrium to ventricles
    2.delivers the stimulus to the AV bundle

    Describe why its important for the AV node to “delay” the electrical impulses to the ventricles?
  12. To make sure that they have ejected all the blood into the ventricles before ventricles contract
  13. Define “Intermodal Pathways
    • ”
    • It’s a pathway for signals from the SA Node to AV Node that passes thru the walls of the atria
  14. Define Automaticity and compare the automaticity of each structure of of the CCS?
  15. What is the role of the “Pacemaker” and which part of the CCS acts as the pacemaker?
  16. To take over your natural heart artificially
    Define “Cardiac Output”?

    Amount of blood ejected by left ventricle each minute

    Define “Stroke Volume”?

    Amount of blood pumped per beat

    Define ”heart rate”?

    Speed of heartbeat measured by numbers of heartbeats per unit of time

    Define “Electrocardiogram”?

    A recording of heartbeat

    What does each wave represent, and what is the effect of each wave on the cardiac cycle?
  17. P wave-Depolarization of Atria
    • Result: atrial contraction
    • QRS- Depolarization of ventricles
    • Result: depolarization of interventricular septum
    • T-Repolarization of Ventricle
    • PQR interval-Delay and Relay of AV Nodes
    • Delay- AV node causes delay so atrial don’t contract same time
    • Relay-Time electrical impulse takes to travel from SA node thru AV node and enters the ventricles.
    • QRST interval-Time needed for ventricles to depolarize and repolarize
  18. Define “Pacemaker Potential
    • ”
    • Slow positive increase in voltage across cell membrane that occurs at end of action potential
  19. Differentiate between “Bradycardia” and “Tachycardia
    • ”
    • Bradycardia-slow sounds of heart(60 beats)
    • Tachycardia-fast sounds of heart(100 or more)

    Describe how neurotransmitters or hormones alters the Pacemaker Potential?

    Action Potential

    Differentiate the effect of the PNS and the SNS on cardiac output.
  20. PNS-Acetycholine decreases
    SNS-Norephine increases

    • Differentiate the function of the “Cardio Inhibitory reflex to the “Cardio accelerator reflex
    • ”
  21. What is the main determinant of a resistance in a vessel?
  22. TPR(Total Peripheral Resistance)
  23. Define Vascular Resistance –opposition to blood flow in vessels
  24. Viscosity-resistance to flow
    Turbulence-increases resistance and slows blood flow

    Define Mean Arterial pressure(MAP)

    Average pressure in arteries during one cardiac cycle

    Define Pressure gradient?

    Difference in pressure from one end of vessel to another

    Define Capilllary hydrostatic pressure?

    BP within capillary beds, driving force for filtration

    Define “Blood colloid osmotic pressure”?

    Measurement of the pressure exerted by the proteins

    Define Net filtration pressure(NFP)

    Is the force responsible for moving fluid across capillary walls

    Describe the effect of Hemorrhaging, dehydration, and change in BP on NFP?

    • Hemorrhaging-both blood volume and bp decline
    • Dehydration-plasma decreases due to h2o loss
  25. Define Edema?
  26. Excess of watery fluid build up in cavities or tissues of body
    Define Precapillary sphincter?
  27. Guards the entrance to to each capillary controlling flow of blood thru sphincter
    Define Vasomotor?
  28. constriction and dilation of blood vessels
    Describe vasoconstriction and vasodilation?

    Vasoconstriction is narrowing of blood vessels and vasodilation is widening of blood vessels

    Describe how vasodilation or vasoconstriction of afferent or efferent precapillary sphincter would change the loss of fluid from capillaries

    Differentiate between the “pulmonary Circuit” and the “Systematic Circuit”?

    • Pulmonary Circuit- the blood vessels that carry blood to and from the lungs
    • Systematic Circuit-the blood vessels that carry the functional blood supply to and from all body tissues

    • Differentiate between Arteries, Veins, Capillaries?
    • Arteries-blood carried away from the heart
    • Veins-blood carried to the heart
    • Capillaries-allows for an exchange of nutrients dissolved gases or wastes
  29. What chambers of heart send/receive the pulmonary circuit?
    What chamber send/receive the systematic circuit?
  30. In the differentiate between the Tunica intima(innermost layer), Tunica media(middle layer) and Tunica externa (outermost layer)
  31. In the Correct Order- list 5 general types of blood vessels
    • Arteries-carry blood away from heart
    • Arterioles-smallest arterial branches
    • Capillaries-diffusion between blood and fluid and fluid
    • venules-
    • Veins-return blood to heart

    Why are arteries referred to as “resistance vessels” and veins referred as “capacitance vessels”?
  32. Arteries-resistance cells because carry blood away (more muscular)
    • Veins-Capacitance(thin walled and back to the heart
    • List 5 ways veins and arteries differ?
  33. Arteries-carry away from heart, thicker walls, don’t have valves, resistant vessels,
    • Veins-have valves, thinner walls, carry to the heart, capacitance vessels
    • Show the flow of blood thru the pulmonary circuit?
    • Blood from atrium, to rt ventricle to enters pulmonary trunk to left and rt pulm arteries, palm arterioles,alveolar capillaries, venules, to pulmonary veins
  34. Formula for blood pressure
    BP=CO*TPR(Blood pressure=cardiac output x total peripheral resistance
  35. Formula for cardiac output
    CO=SV*HR(Cardiac output=Stroke Volume* Heart Rate
  36. Formula for resistance
    • R=8nl/pie R4
    • R=resistance,n=viscosity, L=length of vessels, r=radius of arterioles
  37. Formula for stroke volume
    SV=EDV-ESV Stroke Volume=End Diastolic volume-end systolic volume
  38. Formula for Mean Arterial blood pressure MAP
  39. =DP +1/3 PP(Pulse Pressure)
  40. Carbonic Formula-CO2+H2O>H2CO3>H+CO3-
    Ficks Law-DK*CG*SA/MW*membrane thickness
Card Set
cardiovascular system flashcards.txt
the Heart