1)Differentiate the (coverings)structure and location of the Pericardium, Fibrous Pericardium, Visceral Percardium, and Parietal Pericardium?
Pericardium-double wall, protects heart
- Fibrous-Strong and dense
2) Describe the correlation between the Pericardial Cavity and the Pericardial Sac?
22)Describe location and function of the interventricular Septum
Separates left and rt ventricles
23)Describe why the left ventricle is more muscular than the rt ventricle?
Because it pumps blood to the whole body
24)Demonstrate flow of blood from Superior Vena Cava to Aorta, indicating every chamber, valve and accessory structure?
Superior Vena Cava>Rt, Atrium>Tricuspid Valve>Rt Ventricle>Pulmonary Semilunar Valve>Pulmonary Trunk>Pulmonary Artery>Aveolar Capillaries(Lungs)>Pulmonary Vein>Lft Atrium>Bicuspid Valve>Lft Ventricle>Aortic Semilunar Valve>Aorta> to the body
25) Define cardiac cycle:
The period between the start of one heartbeat and the beginning of the next
26)Difference between systole and diastole?
- Systole-contraction(heart emptying)
- Diastole-relaxing(heart filling)
27)List 8 phases of the cardiac cycle(in order ) and describe whats happening in each phase?
- 1)Cardiac Rest-All 4 chambers are relaxed and ventricles are partially filled with blood
- 2)Atrial Systole- Atria contract, completely filling the ventricles with blood
- 3)Atrial Diastole-Atrial Systole stops, and atrial diastole begins
- 4)Ventricular Systole 1st phase-Isoventricular contraction; pushes av valves closed but doesnt create enough pressure to open semilunar valves
- 5) Ventricular Systole 2nd phase-Ventricular ejection, rises and exceeds pressure in arteries, the semilunar valves open and blood is forced out of ventricles.
- 6) Ventricular Diastole-early as ventricles relax pressure drops. Blood flows back against cusps of semilunar valves and forces them closed.
- 7) Isovolumetric relaxation-blood flows into relaxed atria but AV closed
- 8) Ventricular diastole(late)- all chambers are relaxed
Describe what causes the heart sounds?
1)Lubb(s1)start of ventricular contraction; av closes dupp
- 2)Dupp(s2)-semilunar valve
- 3)(s3)-blood flowing into ventricles
- 4)(s4) atrial contraction
Define the Cardiac Conduction System?
Distribute impulses over the entire heart
Describe the structures used to initiate and move electrical impulses in the heart from beginning to end.
- 1.SA Node-Pacemaker of heart
- 2.AV Node-Relay and Delay
- 3. AV(Bundle of HIS)-receive impulse from AV Node
- 4.Bundle Branches-Rapid Venticular Ejection
- 5.Purkinje Fibers-
List the two functions of the AV Node
1.electrical connection from atrium to ventricles
2.delivers the stimulus to the AV bundle
Describe why its important for the AV node to delay the electrical impulses to the ventricles?
To make sure that they have ejected all the blood into the ventricles before ventricles contract
Define Intermodal Pathways
- Its a pathway for signals from the SA Node to AV Node that passes thru the walls of the atria
Define Automaticity and compare the automaticity of each structure of of the CCS?
What is the role of the Pacemaker and which part of the CCS acts as the pacemaker?
To take over your natural heart artificially
Define Cardiac Output?
Amount of blood ejected by left ventricle each minute
Define Stroke Volume?
Amount of blood pumped per beat
Define heart rate?
Speed of heartbeat measured by numbers of heartbeats per unit of time
A recording of heartbeat
What does each wave represent, and what is the effect of each wave on the cardiac cycle?
P wave-Depolarization of Atria
- Result: atrial contraction
- QRS- Depolarization of ventricles
- Result: depolarization of interventricular septum
- T-Repolarization of Ventricle
- PQR interval-Delay and Relay of AV Nodes
- Delay- AV node causes delay so atrial dont contract same time
- Relay-Time electrical impulse takes to travel from SA node thru AV node and enters the ventricles.
- QRST interval-Time needed for ventricles to depolarize and repolarize
Define Pacemaker Potential
- Slow positive increase in voltage across cell membrane that occurs at end of action potential
Differentiate between Bradycardia and Tachycardia
- Bradycardia-slow sounds of heart(60 beats)
- Tachycardia-fast sounds of heart(100 or more)
Describe how neurotransmitters or hormones alters the Pacemaker Potential?
Differentiate the effect of the PNS and the SNS on cardiac output.
- Differentiate the function of the Cardio Inhibitory reflex to the Cardio accelerator reflex
What is the main determinant of a resistance in a vessel?
TPR(Total Peripheral Resistance)
Define Vascular Resistance opposition to blood flow in vessels
Viscosity-resistance to flow
Turbulence-increases resistance and slows blood flow
Define Mean Arterial pressure(MAP)
Average pressure in arteries during one cardiac cycle
Define Pressure gradient?
Difference in pressure from one end of vessel to another
Define Capilllary hydrostatic pressure?
BP within capillary beds, driving force for filtration
Define Blood colloid osmotic pressure?
Measurement of the pressure exerted by the proteins
Define Net filtration pressure(NFP)
Is the force responsible for moving fluid across capillary walls
Describe the effect of Hemorrhaging, dehydration, and change in BP on NFP?
- Hemorrhaging-both blood volume and bp decline
- Dehydration-plasma decreases due to h2o loss
Excess of watery fluid build up in cavities or tissues of body
Define Precapillary sphincter?
Guards the entrance to to each capillary controlling flow of blood thru sphincter
constriction and dilation of blood vessels
Describe vasoconstriction and vasodilation?
Vasoconstriction is narrowing of blood vessels and vasodilation is widening of blood vessels
Describe how vasodilation or vasoconstriction of afferent or efferent precapillary sphincter would change the loss of fluid from capillaries
Differentiate between the pulmonary Circuit and the Systematic Circuit?
- Pulmonary Circuit- the blood vessels that carry blood to and from the lungs
- Systematic Circuit-the blood vessels that carry the functional blood supply to and from all body tissues
- Differentiate between Arteries, Veins, Capillaries?
- Arteries-blood carried away from the heart
- Veins-blood carried to the heart
- Capillaries-allows for an exchange of nutrients dissolved gases or wastes
What chambers of heart send/receive the pulmonary circuit?
What chamber send/receive the systematic circuit?
In the differentiate between the Tunica intima(innermost layer), Tunica media(middle layer) and Tunica externa (outermost layer)
In the Correct Order- list 5 general types of blood vessels
- Arteries-carry blood away from heart
- Arterioles-smallest arterial branches
- Capillaries-diffusion between blood and fluid and fluid
- Veins-return blood to heart
Why are arteries referred to as resistance vessels and veins referred as capacitance vessels?
Arteries-resistance cells because carry blood away (more muscular)
- Veins-Capacitance(thin walled and back to the heart
- List 5 ways veins and arteries differ?
Arteries-carry away from heart, thicker walls, dont have valves, resistant vessels,
- Veins-have valves, thinner walls, carry to the heart, capacitance vessels
- Show the flow of blood thru the pulmonary circuit?
- Blood from atrium, to rt ventricle to enters pulmonary trunk to left and rt pulm arteries, palm arterioles,alveolar capillaries, venules, to pulmonary veins
Formula for blood pressure
BP=CO*TPR(Blood pressure=cardiac output x total peripheral resistance
Formula for cardiac output
CO=SV*HR(Cardiac output=Stroke Volume* Heart Rate
Formula for resistance
- R=8nl/pie R4
- R=resistance,n=viscosity, L=length of vessels, r=radius of arterioles
Formula for stroke volume
SV=EDV-ESV Stroke Volume=End Diastolic volume-end systolic volume
Formula for Mean Arterial blood pressure MAP
=DP +1/3 PP(Pulse Pressure)
Ficks Law-DK*CG*SA/MW*membrane thickness