A&P exam 1 (part 4)

  1. net movement of molecules from high concentration to low until equilibrium is recorded
    simple diffusion
  2. t or f, molecules do not like to be in small groups
  3. does diffusion always take place in one direction?
    no, it can go both directions at the same time
  4. this type of diffusion has its own type of terminology
    movement of water
  5. molecules diffuse according too?
    its own concentration gradient
  6. differentially permeable membrane occurs with what type of diffusion?
    water diffusion
  7. a cell membrane has a ?
    differentially permeable membrane
  8. if a membrane is permeable, it can ?
    pass through cell molecule
  9. if a membrane is impermeable is can?
    not pass through cell molecule
  10. diffusion of H2O across a differentially permeable membrane?
  11. during osmosis water diffuses from?
    high to low concentration
  12. with osmosis you are interested in the ?
    solvent not the solute
  13. a 5% glucose solution = 95% water solution, which has the greater concentration of water?
    the 5% glucose solution
  14. 10% glucose solution = 90% water solution, which has the lower concentration of water?
    the 10% glucose solution
  15. a problem that occurs with osmosis is when you are ?
    dealing with solutions
  16. tonicity only works for?
    comparing 2 solutions
  17. relative concentrations
  18. the solution on the inside of a cell is always gonna eb?
  19. the solution in tonicity that is outside of the cell could be?
  20. what is used to drive molecules across a cell membrane
    concentration gradient
  21. movement of molecules only occurs if being helped, can go in either direction
    faciliatated diffusion
  22. can go against concentration gradient, but it only used when they absolutely have to
    active transport
  23. osmosis is the ?
    water flow
  24. what acts as channels to facilitate movement from low to high concentrations
  25. what uses proteins as pumps, supplied with energy to move molecules across the concentration gradient
    active transport
  26. type of active transport?
    bulk transport
  27. moving larger quantities of material across membranes using vacuoles
    bulk transport
  28. bulk transport?
    • uses vacuoles (vesicles)
    • requires ATP
  29. ex of bulk transport?
    soap bubbles; little ones coming together and bigger ones separating
  30. brings larger materials into the cell
    bulk transport
  31. bringing solid material in during endocytosis
  32. bringing liquid material in during endocytosis
  33. 3 parts of endocytosis?
    • phagocytosis
    • pinocytosis
    • receptor mediated endocytosis
  34. membrane bounded space?
  35. bulk transport requires?
  36. [X1]=[X2]
    • concentration of solute is same of inside and outside of cell
    • concentration of water is the same
    • the solutions are isotonic to one another
  37. no net movement of water?
    • osmosis
    • [X1]=[X2]
  38. [X1]>[X2]
    • concentration of solute in X1 is greater than X1
    • X1 is hypertonic
    • X2 is hypotonic
  39. more concentrated, concentrated solutions
  40. watery solutions
  41. water always diffuses from?
    hypotonic to hypertonic
  42. to determine what will happen to cell, it involes the ____ and you are answering for the ___
    • solvent
    • solute
  43. eject to exterior, isn't differentiated by solid/liquid
  44. lets out various mixtures of compounds made in other organelles, ex, secretions, digestion
  45. what is bulk transport used for?
    to solve problem of diffusing large particles
  46. incorporated into cell as a coated vesicle?
    LDLs through membrane by RME
  47. differentiate by size, measure of EPD difference
  48. the greater the ____, the greater the difference
  49. have charge associated with it
  50. distribution of ions inside the cell must be different from?
    ions outside the cell
  51. electrical potential difference includes?
    • volts
    • ions
  52. voltmeter compares 2 parts based on placement of electrons
    measuring potential difference
  53. what does the voltmeter measure?
  54. magnitude of difference?
  55. the magnitude of difference is the charge?
    outside the cell
  56. characteristic of all living cells, doesn't matter what type of cell
  57. the resting membrane potential has a ?
    specific charge and only one type of membrane potential
  58. typical voltage in cells?
  59. caused by distribution of ions inside cell vs outside
    resting membrane potential
  60. 1mv=
  61. with resting membrane potential, the charge is?
    across the cell membrane
  62. with RMP all pairs or points (in or out) are?
    isoelectric to each other
  63. phrase to remember for RMP?
    negative to positive, inside to outside
  64. Vm is a characteristic of?
    all living cells
  65. cell membranes are?
    polarized, which is the state
  66. depolarize?
    reduce the state
  67. hyperpolarize?
    decrease charge
  68. 4 ions the affect RMP?
    • K+
    • Na+
    • Cl-
    • charged proteins
  69. intracellular/extracellular ion # for K+
  70. intracellular/extracellular ion # for Na+
  71. intracellular/extracellular ion # for Cl-
  72. intracellular/extracellular ion # for charged proteins?
    • 106.5
    • no extracellular
  73. in the distribution of ions, the net charge?
    causes charge across cell membrane
  74. force acting on ions trying to drive them from side of high concentrations to low
    concentration gradients, or force acting on ions
  75. if gradients were uneven, it would?
    diffuse through membrane and eventually become even again
  76. used to pump sodium out as it is leaked to the inside
    active transport (ATP)
  77. cell membrane is _____ to protein
  78. protein can not pass through ? meaning?
    • the cell membrane
    • all protein is on the inside because it can not get out
  79. with the sodium potassium pump what happens?
    it pumps 3 sodiums out and brings 2 in
  80. how much of energy cell burns is used to maintain RMP of sodium and the sodium pump?
    about 60%
  81. the sodium potassium pump runs?
    all the time
  82. the cell membrane is _____ permeable to sodium
  83. what does slightly permeable mean?
    it can slowly diffuse to inside, kinda leaky
  84. sodium is pumped out as it comes in to maintain?
    concentration using active transport
  85. concentration of potassium is?
    self adjusting
  86. cells only use active transport when?
    they absolutely have too
  87. the size of charge is important in?
    resting membrane potential
Card Set
A&P exam 1 (part 4)
mechanisms of membrane transport resting membrane potential