1. What did Donders (1868) do?
    Came up with Mental chronometry and the RT experiment
  2. What is Mental Chronometry?
    Measure of the length of a cognitive process
  3. What is the RT experiment?
    Experiment by Donders (1868) which measures interval between stimulus presentation and the response/behavior to it

    • Simple - Button + light
    • Choice - 2 buttons for 2 lights
  4. What did Helmholtz (1860) do?
    Came up with Unconscious Inference
  5. Explain Unconsious Inference
    Idea by Helmholtz (1860) in which some perceptions are results of unconscious assumptions made about the environment
  6. What did Ebbinghaus (1885) do?
    Read nonsense syllables until he could flawlessly repeat them
  7. Explain "Savings" and the formula for it
    Concept of Ebbinghaus (1885) in which the amount of information remembered was the result of subtracting re-learned repetitions from initial repetitions, and dividing that by the initial repetitions. (spawned retention curve)
  8. What was special about Wundt (1897)?
    Made the first psychology lab
  9. Who came up with Structuralism and what was it?
    Wundt's (1879) theory of experience being determined by combining elements of experience called sensations
  10. Who came up with Analytic Introspection and what was it?
    Wundt's (1897) method of training people to describe experiences and thought processes in response to a stimuli
  11. Who was Watson (1920)?
    Behaviourist, famous for Little Albert rat experiment (classical conditioning of fear)
  12. Define Classical Conditioning
    Pairing a neutral event with an event that naturally produces some outcome, so the neutral event would produce the same outcome.
  13. What was Skinner (1950) famous for?
    Famous for Skinner Box and Operant Conditioning
  14. Define Operant Conditioning
    Shaping behavior with rewards and punishments
  15. Who did Chomsky (1959) disagree with and why?
    Argued with Skinner (1950) in that children don't learn only through imitation + reinforcement, rather there was an inborn biological program
  16. What was Misbehavior of Organisms (1961)?
    Book which outlined animals' built-in instincts prevailing over conditioning
  17. What did Tolman (1938) do?
    Trained rats to find food in a 4 armed maze. Disproved behaviorism, proved dynamic cognitive mapping.
  18. What was the Cognitive Revolution?
    Shift from stimulus-response relationships to explaining behavior in terms of mind
  19. Define the Information-processing approach
    Form of studying the mind by relating it to a computer
  20. Explain Cherry (1953)'s experiment
    Dichotic listening experiment (Different message in each ear, one repeated)
  21. What did Broadbent (1958) make?
    Flow diagram depicting what happens if one stimuli is focused on
  22. Define the Behavior Approach
    Measure of relationship between stimuli and behavior
  23. Define the Physiological Approach
    Measure of relationship between physiology and behavior
  24. What did Muller and Pilzecker (1900) do?
    2 groups, 2 lists, one learning the second list 6 minutes after the first vs. immediately

    (memory consolidation)
  25. What experiment did Gais (2007) perform?
    2 groups, 1 list, one sleeping immediately after learning the list vs. hours after

    (memory consolidation)
  26. What are Neurotransmitters?
    Chemicals affecting the electrical signal of the receiving neuron (excitatory + inhibitory)
  27. What is the Frontal Lobe responsible for?
    Language, thought, memory, motor
  28. What is the Parietal Lobe responsible for?
    Touch, all physical sensations really
  29. What is the Temporal Lobe responsible for?
    Auditory, language, perception
  30. What is the Occipital Lobe responsible for?
  31. What is the Hippocampus responsible for?
    Memory formation
  32. What is the Amygdala responsible for?
    Emotions + emotional memories
  33. What is the Thalamus responsible for
    Processes auditory, sensory, and visual senses
  34. What is the Limbic System composed of?
    Contains the hippocampus, amygdala, and thalamus
  35. What is the Cerebral Cortex composed of?
    Contains frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal lobes
  36. Where and what is the Fusiform Face Area
    In temporal lobe and recognizes faces
  37. Where and what is the Parahippocampal Place Area
    In temporal lobe and responds to environments
  38. Where and what is the Extrastriate Body Area
    In occipital/temporal lobe and responds to bodies and body parts
  39. Where and what is the Broca's Area
    In frontal lobe and is responsible for language production
  40. Where and what is the Wernicke's Area
    In temporal lobe and is responsible for language comprehension
  41. What does a Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scan do?
    Measures blood flow in the brain with help from a radioactive tracer
  42. What is the Subtraction Technique?
    When you take two brain images, and compare them to figure out what areas the stimuli stimulated
  43. What is a Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) scan?
    Measures blood flow in the brain without the need for a radioactive tracer
  44. What is the Event-Related Potential (ERP) method?
    Hooking up sensors to the scalp to make inferences about inner brain workings

    • (+ is tons of measurements)
    • (- is no precise locations)
  45. What are Feature Detectors?
    Neurons that respond the best to specific stimuli
  46. What did Hubel & Wiesel (1965) find?
    Simple cells and complex cells (neurons)
  47. Define a Simple Cell
    Neurons that respond best to bars of light of a particular orientation
  48. Define a Complex Cell
    Neurons that respond best to a bar of light with specific orientation and length
  49. Define Specificity Coding
    Represent a specific stimuli by firing a specialized neuron that only responds to a specific stimulus
  50. Define Distributed Coding
    Representation by a pattern of firings across a number of neurons
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