Man who pioneered comparative physiology
Biological levels of organization (5)
3. Organismal (full animal)
Understand a system by the function of its parts
Concept of the whole being more than just the sum of parts
Unable to tell function/what it is based on observation alone
The three types of physiology
Changes during animal growth
Changes in response to the environment
Changes due to natural selection
Study of Physiology for knowledge purposes only
Study of Physiology for practical uses (ie. Medicine)
August Krogh Principle
For every biological system, there's an organism in which it can be conveniently studied.
Maintenance of internal consistency.
Method of sorting behavioral phenotypes (3)
Response direction, magnitude, and recovery
Not varying in a 1:1 manner
Organisms that allow internal condition to fluctuate with external condiditons
Organisms with constant internal conditions regardless of external conditions.
Negative Feedback Loop
Result of a system or process that causes a response that reduce the changes of the system. (Producing heat would be a negative feedback to an elevated temperature)
Positive Feedback Loop
Result of a system or process that causes a response that increases the changes of the system. (Dissipating heat would be a negative feedback to an elevated temperature)
One genotype generating multiple phenotypes depending on environmental conditions.
Developmental phenotypic changes (Irreversible)
Phenotypic changes induced in lab (Reversible)
Phenotypic changes induced in a natural environment (reversible)
How is phenotype/physiology changing?
Why is the phenotype/physiology changing?
Change in a population over evolutionary time
Basis for Natural Selection (3)
1. Must be variation between individuals
2. Traits must be heritable
3. Traits must increase fitness (varies with environment)
Random changes in genotype frequency over time independent of adaptive evolution.
Result of genetic drift, establish a new species.
Protein that changes the rate of a reaction
Law of Conservation of Energy
Energy can be converted but not created or destroyed
Chaos of the universe
The ability to do work
Energy transfer between systems
Energy transmitted from one object to another
Energy in the movement of objects
Energy in movement of charged particles
Energy in the movement of molecules
Energy within chemical bonds
% of retained energy throughout the levels
10% or 1/10
Difference between two points
Molecules that move in a gradient
Reaction that releases heat
Reaction that absorbs heat
Average thermal energy of a collection of molecules
Energy required for a molecule to reach a transition state
Intermediate structure between a substrate and a product
Atoms attached through shared electrons
Molecules organized into 3D structures
Atom and bond combos that are found in biological molecules
Product of van der Waals Interaction
Polarity made by the assymetry of electron distribution in a molecule
van der Waals Interaction
A transient dipole molecule affecting the electron distribution in another molecule
Asymmetric sharing of electrons between two atoms.
Joining of anions and cations (acids, bases)
Atom with too many electrons (-)
Atom with too few electrons (+)
Non-polar bond, unable to interact with polar bonds.
Molecules unfolding due to high temperature
Most abundant molecule in a liquid
Other molecules in a liquid (not most abundant)
Solvent + solute
Force of attraction between water molecules at a air-to-water interface.
Temperature in which molecules have enough thermal energy to break surface tension
Temperature in which molecules stabilize enough to form additional bonds (usually hydrogen bonds)
Solute that is surrounded by water molecules
Force associated with osmosis
Concentration of dissolved particles as a whole
Concentration of a single dissolved particle
One of two solutions that has the higher osmolarity
One of two solutions that has the lower osmolarity
Two solutions that have the same osmolarity
The affect of a solution on cell volume
A solution that has a lower water concentration than the cell (cell shrinks)
A solution that has a higher water concentration than the cell (cell expands)
A solution with equal water concentration to the cell (no net osmosis)
When the hydrogen ion concentration equals the hydroxide ion concentration
Solute that dampens the effect of added acids or bases on pH