ZOOL 241

  1. Knut Schmidt-Neilsen
    Man who pioneered comparative physiology
  2. Biological levels of organization (5)
    • 1. Cell/molecular
    • 2. Systemic
    • 3. Organismal (full animal)
    • 4. Ecological
    • 5. Integrative
  3. Reductionism
    Understand a system by the function of its parts
  4. Emergence
    Concept of the whole being more than just the sum of parts
  5. Emergence Properties
    Unable to tell function/what it is based on observation alone
  6. The three types of physiology
    • 1. Developmental
    • 2. Environmental
    • 3. Evolutionary
  7. Developmental Physiology
    Changes during animal growth
  8. Environmental Physiology
    Changes in response to the environment
  9. Evolutionary Physiology
    Changes due to natural selection
  10. Pure Physiology
    Study of Physiology for knowledge purposes only
  11. Applied Physiology
    Study of Physiology for practical uses (ie. Medicine)
  12. August Krogh Principle
    For every biological system, there's an organism in which it can be conveniently studied.
  13. Homeostasis
    Maintenance of internal consistency.
  14. Method of sorting behavioral phenotypes (3)
    Response direction, magnitude, and recovery
  15. Allometric Scaling
    Not varying in a 1:1 manner
  16. Conformers
    Organisms that allow internal condition to fluctuate with external condiditons
  17. Regulators
    Organisms with constant internal conditions regardless of external conditions.
  18. Negative Feedback Loop
    Result of a system or process that causes a response that reduce the changes of the system. (Producing heat would be a negative feedback to an elevated temperature)
  19. Positive Feedback Loop
    Result of a system or process that causes a response that increases the changes of the system. (Dissipating heat would be a negative feedback to an elevated temperature)
  20. Phenotypic Plasticity
    One genotype generating multiple phenotypes depending on environmental conditions.
  21. Polyphenism
    Developmental phenotypic changes (Irreversible)
  22. Acclimation
    Phenotypic changes induced in lab (Reversible)
  23. Acclimatization
    Phenotypic changes induced in a natural environment (reversible)
  24. Proximate Cause
    How is phenotype/physiology changing?
  25. Ultimate Cause
    Why is the phenotype/physiology changing?
  26. Adaptation
    Change in a population over evolutionary time
  27. Basis for Natural Selection (3)
    • 1. Must be variation between individuals
    • 2. Traits must be heritable
    • 3. Traits must increase fitness (varies with environment)
  28. Genetic Drift
    Random changes in genotype frequency over time independent of adaptive evolution.
  29. Founder Effect
    Result of genetic drift, establish a new species.
  30. Enzyme
    Protein that changes the rate of a reaction
  31. Law of Conservation of Energy
    Energy can be converted but not created or destroyed
  32. Entropy
    Chaos of the universe
  33. Energy
    The ability to do work
  34. Energetics
    Energy transfer between systems
  35. Radiant energy
    Energy transmitted from one object to another
  36. Mechanical energy
    Energy in the movement of objects
  37. Electrical Energy
    Energy in movement of charged particles
  38. Thermal Energy
    Energy in the movement of molecules
  39. Chemical Energy
    Energy within chemical bonds
  40. % of retained energy throughout the levels
    10% or 1/10
  41. Gradient
    Difference between two points
  42. Diffusion
    Molecules that move in a gradient
  43. Exothermic Reaction
    Reaction that releases heat
  44. Endothermic Reaction
    Reaction that absorbs heat
  45. Enthalpy
    Average thermal energy of a collection of molecules
  46. Activation Energy
    Energy required for a molecule to reach a transition state
  47. Transition State
    Intermediate structure between a substrate and a product
  48. Covalent Bonds
    Atoms attached through shared electrons
  49. Noncovalent Bonds
    Molecules organized into 3D structures
  50. Functional Groups
    Atom and bond combos that are found in biological molecules
  51. Transient Dipole
    Product of van der Waals Interaction

    Polarity made by the assymetry of electron distribution in a molecule
  52. van der Waals Interaction
    Noncovalent Bond

    A transient dipole molecule affecting the electron distribution in another molecule
  53. Hydrogen Bond
    Noncovalent Bond

    Asymmetric sharing of electrons between two atoms.
  54. Ionic Bond
    Noncovalent Bond

    Joining of anions and cations (acids, bases)
  55. Anion
    Atom with too many electrons (-)
  56. Cation
    Atom with too few electrons (+)
  57. Hydrophobic Bond
    Noncovalent Bond

    Non-polar bond, unable to interact with polar bonds.
  58. Denature
    Molecules unfolding due to high temperature
  59. Solvent
    Most abundant molecule in a liquid
  60. Solute
    Other molecules in a liquid (not most abundant)
  61. Solution
    Solvent + solute
  62. Surface Tension
    Force of attraction between water molecules at a air-to-water interface.
  63. Boiling Point
    Temperature in which molecules have enough thermal energy to break surface tension
  64. Freezing Point
    Temperature in which molecules stabilize enough to form additional bonds (usually hydrogen bonds)
  65. Hydration Shell
    Solute that is surrounded by water molecules
  66. Osmotic Pressure
    Force associated with osmosis
  67. Osmolarity
    Concentration of dissolved particles as a whole
  68. Molarity
    Concentration of a single dissolved particle
  69. Hyperosmotic
    One of two solutions that has the higher osmolarity
  70. Hyposmotic
    One of two solutions that has the lower osmolarity
  71. Isosmotic
    Two solutions that have the same osmolarity
  72. Tonicity
    The affect of a solution on cell volume
  73. Hypertonic Solution
    A solution that has a lower water concentration than the cell (cell shrinks)
  74. Hypotonic Solution
    A solution that has a higher water concentration than the cell (cell expands)
  75. Isotonic Solution
    A solution with equal water concentration to the cell (no net osmosis)
  76. Neutrality
    When the hydrogen ion concentration equals the hydroxide ion concentration
  77. Buffer
    Solute that dampens the effect of added acids or bases on pH
Card Set
ZOOL 241