Chapter 16 Ap2

  1. Produces the hormones that promote the development of the female secondary sexual characteristics at puberty.
  2. Storehouse for the hormones produced by the hypothalamus of the brain
    Pituitary gland
  3. Produces the hormones that direct the production of the secondary male sex characteristics
  4. Produce steroid hormones and glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids
    Adrenal glands
  5. Produces hormones and is considered a neuroendocrine organ.
  6. Growth hormone‐releasing hormone (GHRH)
    goes for bones and muscle growth
  7. Gonadotropin‐releasing hormone (GnRH
    goes to the testes and ovaries
  8. Prolactin‐releasing hormone (PRH)
    Mammary glands and milk procuction.
  9. Corticotropin‐releasing hormone (CRH)
    Adrenal cortex
  10. Thyrotropin‐releasing hormone (TRH)
  11. An autoimmune problem involving the thyroid gland.
    Graves disease
  12. Hyposecretion of growth hormone
    Pituitart dwarfisim
  13. Hyposecretion of the pancreas
    Diabetes mellitus
  14. Hyposecretion of the adrenal cortex.
    Addison's disease
  15. Hypersecretion of growth hormone
  16. Hyposecretion of the thyroid in adults.
  17. Hypersecretion of the adrenal cortex
    cushings disease
  18. Hypersecretion of growth hormone
  19. Hyposecretion of the thyroid in infants.
  20. The size and shape of a pea; produces hormones that stimulate other endocrine glands
  21. The gland that controls the fight‐or‐flight reaction
    Adrenal medualla
  22. Produces hormones that regulate glucose levels in the body
  23. Produces a hormone that controls blood levels of calcium and potassium by their removal from bone tissue
  24. Produces the body's major metabolic hormones
  25. What zone Produces glucocorticoids
    zona fasiculata
  26. What zone Produces epinephrine
    adrenal medulla
  27. What zone Produces aldosterone
    zona glomerluosa
  28. What zone Excess hormone levels result in Cushing’s syndrome.
    zona glomerluosa
  29. What zone Hormones mimic sympathetic nervous system neurotransmitters
    adrenal medulla
  30. What zone Produces androgens
    zona reticularis
  31. In humans, melatonin may inhibit sexual maturation.T or F
  32. The antagonistic hormones that regulate the blood calcium level are calcitonin‐parathormone.T or F
  33. The hormone that raises blood sugar levels is insulin T or F
  34. Addison’s disease is due to a deficit output of glucocorticoids only T or F
  35. Both "turn on" factors (hormonal, humoral, and neural stimuli) and "turn off" factors (feedback inhibition and others) may be modulated by the activity of the nervous system T or F
  36. ACTH stimulates the adrenal cortex to release corticosteroid hormones.T or F
  37. LH is also referred to as a gonadotropin T or F
  38. With age, chronic stress increases blood levels of cortisol and appears to contribute to memory deteriorationT or F
  39. Oxytocin is a strong stimulant of uterine contractions.T or F
  40. Follicle cells of the thyroid gland produce thyroglobulin, while follicle cells of the parathyroid produce calcitonin.T or F
  41. Type 2 diabetics may reflect declining receptor sensitivity to insulin rather than decreased insulin production.T or F
  42. The prime metabolic effect of cortisol is gluconeogenesis.T or F
  43. The beta cells are the pancreatic islet cells that produce insulinT or F
  44. Most type 2 diabetics do not produce insulin.T or F
  45. Aldosterone is the most potent mineralocorticoid produced in the adrenals but the least abundant.T or F
  46. Atrial natriuretic peptide is a hormone that controls blood pressure in part by increasing the urinary excretion of sodiumT or F
  47. Although glucagon is a small polypeptide, it is nevertheless very potent in its regulatory effects.T or F
  48. The thyroid gland is a large gland that controls metabolic functions throughout the life of an individualT or F
  49. Many hormones synthesized in the gastrointestinal tract are chemically identical to brain neurotransmittersT or F
  50. All of the following hormones are secreted by the adenohypophysis: ACTH, FSH, and LH
    T or F
  51. Iodine is an essential element required for the synthesis of thyroxineT or F
  52. The endocrine gland that is probably malfunctioning if a person has a high metabolic rate is the parathyroid.T or F
  53. Growth hormone always exerts its influence by targeting other endocrine glands to produce hormones.T or F
  54. Glucocorticoids are steroid hormones that usually enhance the immune responses when an individual is suffering from severe stressT or F
  55. Direct gene activation involves a second‐messenger system.T or F
  56. All peptide hormone synthesis requires gene activation that produces mRNA.T or F
  57. All adenohypophyseal hormones except GH affect their target cells via a cyclic AMP second messenger.  T or F
  58. Gluconeogenesis occurs in the liver due to the action of ________.

    B)   cortisol
  59. Normal development of the immune response is due in part to hormones produced by the ________.

    D)   thymus gland
  60. Virtually all of the protein or amino acid‐based hormones exert their effects through intracellular ________.

    A)   second messengers
  61. Which of the following is not a category of endocrine gland stimulus?

    D)   enzyme
  62. Chemical substances secreted by cells into the extracellular fluids and that regulate the metabolic function of other cells in the body are called ________. 

    C)   hormones
  63. The hypothalamic‐hypophyseal tract 

    A)  is the site of prolactin synthesis
    B)  conducts aldosterone to the hypophysis C)  connects the hypophysis to the pituitary gland
    D)  is partly contained within the infundibulum
    D)  is partly contained within the infundibulum
  64. 64)  Which of the following is not a cardinal sign of diabetes mellitus? 

    A)   All of these are signs.
  65. Which of the choices below is not a factor required for target cell activation by hormone receptor interaction?

    D)   type of hormone
  66. Oxytocin ________.

    C)   release is an example of a positive feedback control mechanism
  67. ADH ________.

    B)   is inhibited by alcohol
  68. Thyroid hormone exerts its influence by ________

    D)   entering some cells and binding to intracellular receptors within the nuclei
  69. Gonadocorticoid(s)

    B)   production by the adrenal gland is insignificant compared with sex hormone release from the gonads during late puberty
  70. Sometimes prolonged excessive exposure to high hormone concentrations causes a phenomenon known as

    C)   down‐regulation
  71. Which of the following is not a change that may be caused by hormonal stimulus?

    B)   direct control of the nervous system
  72. The ability of a specific tissue or organ to respond to the presence of a hormone is dependent on

    D)   the presence of the appropriate receptors on the cells of the target tissue or organ
  73. Several hormones are synthesized in the hypothalamus and transported to the anterior pituitary gland. The mechanism of transportation from hypothalamus to anterior pituitary gland is through the

    B)   hypophyseal portal system
  74. The neurohypophysis or posterior lobe of the pituitary gland is not a true endocrine gland because

    A)   it is only a hormone storage area that receives hormones from the hypothalamus for release
  75. Steroid hormones exert their action by
    A)  stimulating the synthesis of a glycogen B)  entering the nucleus of a cell and initiating or altering the expression of a gene C)  finding an appropriate cell receptor and initiating cAMP activity
    D)  increasing blood pressure
    B)  entering the nucleus of a cell and initiating or altering the expression of a gene
  76. The second‐messenger mechanism of hormone action operates by
    A)  not responding to a feedback mechanism B)  binding to specific receptors and employing the services of G proteins and cAMP
    C)  synthesizing more of the hormone than is actually needed
    D)  increasing the basal metabolic rate in the target organ
    B)  binding to specific receptors and employing the services of G proteins and cAMP
  77. Hormones often cause a cell to elicit multiple responses; this is because

    D)   during protein kinase activation, enzymes phosphorylate many other enzymes
  78. Cells that respond to peptide hormones usually do so through a sequence of biochemical reactions involving receptor and kinase activation. In order for cells to respond, it is necessary for first and second messengers to communicate. This is possible because

    D)   G protein acts as the link between first and second messengers
  79. Thyroid hormone (a small iodinated amine) enters target cells in a manner similar to

    A)  steroid hormones, because both diffuse easily into target cells
    B)  glucagon, because the structure of glucagon is similar to that of thyroid hormone C)  insulin, because insulin is a small peptide D)  growth hormone, because the thyroid works synergistically with thyroid hormone
    A)  steroid hormones, because both diffuse easily into target cells
  80. When it becomes necessary to enlist the fight‐or‐flight response, a hormone that is released during the alarm phase of the general adaptation syndrome is

    C)   epinephrine
  81. One of the least complicated of the endocrine control systems directly responds to changing blood levels of ions and nutrients. Which of the following describes this mechanism?

    C)   humoral stimulation
  82. 82)  The major targets of growth hormone are A)  the adrenal glands 
    B)  the blood vessels
    C)  bones and skeletal muscles 
    D)  the liver
    C)  bones and skeletal muscles
  83. The parathyroid glands maintain adequate levels of blood calcium. This is accomplished through

    B)   targeting the bone and activating osteoclasts so that calcium will be released
  84. 84)  Which organ is responsible for synthesizing ANP

    A)   the heart
  85. Mineralocorticoid is to aldosterone as glucocorticoid is to

    A)   cortisol
  86. Leptin is secreted by

    C)   adipocyte
  87. The most important regulator of electrolyte concentrations in extracellular fluids is

    A)   aldosterone
  88. Which of the following is not a steroid‐based hormone?

    B)   epinephrine
  89. Which of the following would be associated with the action of steroids on cells? 

    C)   a hormone‐receptor complex that interacts directly with the cell's DNA
  90. Cellular responses to hormones that initiate second‐messenger systems include
    A)  possible activation of several different second‐messenger systems
    B)  hormone binding to intracellular receptors C)  cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase formation of an active second messenger
    D)  formation of a specific protein kinase that acts on a series of extracellular intermediates
    A)  possible activation of several different second‐messenger systems
  91. Regulating hormones from the hypothalamus

    C)   first enter into the hypophyseal portal system
  92. ACTH

    A)   secretion is regulated by a hypothalamic secretion
  93. Which of the following is true about calcium homeostasis?

    A)   Parathyroid hormone is the single most important regulator of calcium levels in the blood.
  94. Aldosterone

    A)  functions to increase sodium reabsorption B)  is secreted by the neurohypophysis
    C)  presence increases potassium concentration in the blood
    D)  production is greatly influenced by ACTH
    A)  functions to increase sodium reabsorption
  95. The only amine hormone to act like a steroid is

    A)   TH
  96. 96)  Which organ does not have hormone production?

    B)   liver
  97. In circumstances where the body requires prolonged or increased levels of a hormone, the DNA of target cells will specify the synthesis of more receptors on the surface of the cells of the target organ. This is known as

    B)   up‐regulation
  98. Eicosanoids do not include

    C)   hydrocortisones
  99. A man has been told that he is not synthesizing enough follicle‐stimulating hormone (FSH), and for this reason he may be unable to father a child. Choose the correct statement to explain this problem. 

    B)   FSH stimulates sperm production in the testes.
  100. Which of the following organs is affected by thyroid hormone in adults?

    D)   liver
  101. Thyroxine is a peptide hormone, but its mechanism is different from other peptide hormones. Which of the following statements is true concerning this difference?

    A)   It does not require a second messenger to effect a response.
  102. How do glucocorticoids enable the body to deal appropriately with stress?

    B)   by increasing blood glucose, fatty acid, and amino acid levels and enhancing blood pressure
  103. What ion is sometimes used as a second messenger of amino acid based hormones?

    C)   calcium
  104. ________ are hormones synthesized from cholesterol.
  105. ________ is a hormone that has only one known effect: to stimulate milk production by the breast
  106. ________ are the result of HYPERsecretion of growth hormone.
    Agromegly and gigantisim
  107. The largest pure endocrine gland in the body is the ________.
  108. Which hormone stimulates production of RBCs and which organ or structure produces it
    Erythropoieten and the Kidney
  109. Alpha islet cells produce ________, an extremely potent hyperglycemic hormone
  110. The ________ gland may influence our day/night cycles and even regulate the onset of sexual maturity
  111. The ________ gland declines in size and function with age.
  112. Endocrine gland stimuli include hormonal, ________, and ________ stimuli
    humoral and neural
  113. As a result of stress the adenohypophysis releases ________, which stimulates release of hormones from the adrenal cortex that retain sodium and water, increase blood sugar, and begin breaking down fats
Card Set
Chapter 16 Ap2