Chapter 1

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  1. Ecosystem
    all of the interacting components of a biological community and its surrounding environment
  2. Sustainable Ecosystem
    an ecosystem that is stable enough to withstand pressure (e.g. cold winter temperatures) and give support to various organisms
  3. Biotic
    the living parts of an ecosystem (e.g. plants, fungi)
  4. Abiotic
    the non-living parts of an ecosystem (e.g. water, soil, light)
  5. Lithosphere
    the hard part of Earth's surface (e.g. rock)
  6. Hydrosphere
    all of the water found on Earth (i.e. lakes, oceans, and ground water)
  7. Atmosphere
    the layer of gases above Earth's surface (e.g. oxygen)
  8. Biosphere
    the areas of Earth where living organisms exist (i.e. in other spheres)
  9. Nutrients
    a chemical that is necessary for living things to survive, and is cycled through ecosystems (e.g. phosphorus)
  10. Eutrophication
    a process in which nutrient levels in aquatic ecosystems increase, causing a significant increase in the population of primary producers
  11. Photosynthesis
    a process plants manage that changes solar energy into chemical energy, which can then be used by organisms
  12. Trophic Level
    a category of organisms that is grouped by the method they use to obtain their energy (e.g secondary consumers)
  13. Biomass
    the total mass of all living organisms in a distinct group or area
  14. Trophic Efficiency
    a measure of the amount of energy or biomass transferred from one trophic level to the trophic level one place higher than the previous
  15. Bioaccumulation
    a process in which materials, especially toxins, are ingested by an organism in amounts greater than can be eradicated
  16. Biomagnification
    the increase in the concentration of a toxin as it is moved from one trophic level to the next
  17. Cellular Respiration
    a process that releases the energy from organic molecules, especially carbohydrates, in an aerobic environment
  18. Fermentation
    a process that releases energy from organic molecules, especially carbohydrates, in an anaerobic environment
  19. Greenhouse Gases
    atmospheric gases that prevent heat from leaving the atmosphere, which causes the temperature of the atmosphere to increase (e.g. carbon dioxide, water vapour, methane)
  20. Greenhouse Effect
    the result of greenhouse gases, which trap some energy that would otherwise leave Earth
  21. Acid Precipitation
    rain, snow, or fog, that is unusually acidic because of protons from gases in the atmosphere that react with water to form acids
Card Set
Chapter 1
Wednesday, September 10th, 2014.
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