Principles of Biology

  1. Levels of biological organization
    • Biosphere
    • Ecosystems
    • Communities
    • Populations
    • Organisms
    • Organs & organ systems
    • Tissues
    • Cells
    • Organelles
    • Molecules
  2. Arrangement and the interactions of parts
    Emergent properties
  3. Self- regulate by a mechanism called
  4. In which accumulation of an end product of a process slows that process
    Negative feedback
  5. End product speeds up its own production
    Positive feedback
  6. Clotting of your own blood because of injury
    Positive feedback
  7. Cell makes more ATP than it can use, the excess ATP inhibits an enzyme near the beginning of the pathway
    Negative feedback
  8. Three domains of life
    • Bacteria
    • Archaea
    • Eukarya
  9. Species arose from a succession of ancestors
    Descent with modification
  10. Propagation of certain traits
    Natural selection
  11. A search for information and explanation, often focusing on specific questions
  12. Anything that takes up space and has mass
  13. Is a substance that cannot be broken down to other substances by chemical reactions
  14. Is a substance consisting of two or more different elements combined in a fixed ratio
  15. Are required by an organism in only minute quantities
    Trace elements
  16. What trace element is needed by all forms of life
  17. Smallest unit of matter that still retains the properties of an element
  18. Number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
    Atomic number
  19. Total mass of an atom
    Atomic mass
  20. One of several atomic forms of an element, each with the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons, thus differing in atomic mass
  21. Nucleus decays spontaneously, giving off particles and energy
    Radioactive isotope
  22. Outermost energy shell of an atom, containing the valence electrons involved in the chemical reactions of that atom
    Valence shell
  23. Three- dimensional space where an electron is found ninety percent of the time
  24. A type of strong chemical bond in which two atoms share one or more pairs of valence electrons
    Covalent bond
  25. Sharing of two pairs of valence electrons by two atoms
    Double bond
  26. Attraction of a particular atom for the electrons of a covalent bond
  27. Electrons are shared equally between two atoms of similar electronegativity
    Nonpolar covalent bond
  28. One atom is more electronegative and the atoms do not share the electron equally
    Polar covalent bond
  29. A positive charged ion
  30. A negatively charged ion
  31. Noncovalent attraction between a hydrogen and an electronegative atom
    Van der Waals interactions
  32. A material resulting from a chemical reaction
  33. A starting material in a chemical reaction
  34. The state in which the rate of the forward reaction equals the rate of the reverse reaction, so that the relative concentrations of the reactants and products do not change with time
    Chemical equilibrium
  35. Linking together of like molecules often by hydrogen bonds
  36. The clinging of one substance to another, such as water to plant cell walls by means of hydrogen bonds
  37. A measure of how difficult it is to stretch or break the surface of a liquid
    Surface tension
  38. The energy of motion
    Kinetic energy
  39. Atoms and molecules have kinetic energy because
    They are always moving
  40. Amount of heat it takes to raise the temperature of 1g of water by 1C
  41. Amount of heat that must be absorbed or lost for 1g of that substance to change its temperature by 1C
    Specific heat
  42. Is the quantity of heat a liquid must absorb for 1g of it to be converted from the liquid to the gaseous state
    Heat of vaporization
  43. The process in which the surface of an object becomes cooler during evaporation, a result of the molecules with the greatest kinetic energy changing from the liquid to the gaseous state
    Evaporative cooling
  44. Ability of ice to float due to its
    Lower density
  45. The dissolving agent of a solution
  46. The substance that is dissolved
  47. A solution in which water is the solvent
    Aqueous solution
  48. A stable suspension of fine particles in a liquid
  49. Substances that are nonionic and nonpolar
  50. The sum of the mass of all the atoms in a molecule
    Molecular mass
  51. 6.02x1023 molecules
  52. The number of moles of solute per liter of solution
  53. The hydrogen atom leaves its electron behind and is transferred as a protein
    Hydrogen ion
  54. The molecule with the extra proton
    Hydronium ion
  55. The molecule that lost the proton
    Hydroxide ion
  56. Increases the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution
  57. Reduces the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution
  58. A measure of hydrogen ion concentration equal to -log[H+]
  59. A substance that minimizes changes in the concentrations of H+ and OH- in a solution
  60. Rain, snow or fog with a pH lower than 5.2
    Acid precipitation
Card Set
Principles of Biology
Principles of Biology