Introduction and Tissues

  1. What is Anatomy?
    • means "structure" 
    • the physical aspects of something
    • ex: the heart has 4 chambers (tells you what its like physically)
  2. What is Physiology?
    • means "function"
    • what it does, how it works
    • ex: the heart function is to pump blood
  3. How is structure in the body efficient? Give an example
    • it is well suited for its function
    • ex: the heart is very muscular making it efficient for contracting. The left side has more muscle to pump the body while the right has less just for the lungs
  4. Give an example of how the systems of the body work together
    walking- you need skeletal, muscular and nervous system: nervous system sends signals to muscles which pull on joints
  5. What are the levels of organization of the body? (Lowest to highest)
    chemical level → cell level → tissues → organs → organ systems → organismal level
  6. What is the chemical level?
    • also known as molecular level
    • atoms combine to form molecules (atoms and molecules combine to form cells)
  7. Cell Level
    smallest unit of living things
  8. Cytology
    • the study of cells
    • cyte means cells
  9. Tissues
    • a group of similar cells plus the intercellular material between them. 
    • all of the cells in this group have a common function
    • ex: nervous tissue sends impulses
  10. histology?
    study of tissues
  11. organs
    • a structure made up of at least 2 different types of tissue (usually its 4 types)
    • they have a complex function
    • ex: heart: blood (circulatory tissue) nervous tissue, membrane (epithelial tissue), muscle tissue
  12. Organ systems
    • groups of related organs with common complex functions
    • ex: digestive system, endocrine system, etc
  13. Organismal Level
    the organism, your whole body, made up of many organ systems
  14. What are the functions that are vital for life? (7)
    • Maintaining boundaries
    • Movement
    • Responsiveness or Excitability
    • Digestion
    • Excretion
    • Reproduction
    • Growth
  15. maintaining boundaries
    • having a boundary is critical for survival for protection from bacteria and harmful things
    • ex: skin on the surface of the body bs the external environment
    • ex: internally- the cell membrane vx the internal environment of the body
  16. extracellular
    • outside the cell fluid/material 
    • also called intercellular
  17. intracellular
    whats inside cells
  18. Movement
    • can be thought of in 2 ways
    • a. of the whole body- walking, raising hand, etc
    • b. within the body- stomach churning, blood flowing
    • muscle cells have the ability of contracting for movement
  19. Describe the ability to contract
    most contraction involves shortening of a muscle or muscle cells
  20. Responsiveness or Excitability
    • the ability to sense changes in the environment and respond to them
    • ex: something cold in the environment, light coming into your eyes, etc and you responding
    • all cells can do this but it is one of the nervous cell's specialties
  21. Digestion
    • break down of food to be absorbed into blood then used by cells for nutrition
    • when nutrients get to cells they are utilized by metabolism which is all chemical reactions in the body
  22. Anabolism
    • synthesis reactions
    • ex: amino acids to protein
  23. Catabolism
    • breakdown reactions
    • ex: breakdown of sugars
  24. Excretion
    removal of wastes from the body, these wastes can be excess substances (ex: too much water), useless things, or harmful substances
  25. Reproduction
    both cell and body reproduction
  26. Growth (2 ways)
    • living structures grow in two ways
    • --> an increase in cell number making cells through mitosis
    • --> an increase in cell size
  27. What does survival rely on?
    • Nutrients
    • Oxygen (needed to metabolize)
    • Normal body temp
    • Normal atmospheric pressure
  28. What is homeostasis?
    • maintaining a relative balance, keeping things more or less constant
    • it is a condition that varies within a narrow range, it isnt always exactly one number
  29. Example of things maintained by homeostasis?
    • temperature
    • ph
    • blood pressure
    • heart rate
    • electrolytes
    • oxygen levels
  30. How is homeostasis achieved?
    • through adaptation, the ability to cope with changes in the environment
    • ex: at high altitudes, there is less oxygen, the body will breathe faster to get more and make more red blood cells
  31. What 2 systems in the body regulate homeostasis?
    • Nervous system: nervous impulses
    • Endocrine System: hormones secreted into blood
  32. Who discovered homeostasis?
    Walter Cannon
  33. What is needed for homeostasis?
    • measurement: ex- your body must know how much calcium is in the blood to determine if it is too high or low
    • healthy range: ability to determine healthy set point
    • ability to compare level with set point
  34. variable
    a factor that is regulated
  35. receptor
    • a sensor that measures the level
    • some part of the body that detects a stimulus such as low blood glucose
    • responds by sending an imput into the control center (blood pressure control center is medulla oblongatta which controls your heart rate)
  36. Examples of receptors
    nervous cells in the chest are sensitive to high blood pressure and will send signals
  37. Control Center
    • determines the set point 
    • analyzes the info it receives and determines the response
    • regulates an efferent pathway to to an effector
    • ex: if blood pressure is too low it will set a signal to speed up heart rate
    • does all this to maintain homeostasis
  38. Effector
    structure that will regulate the response output
  39. Negative Feedback
    • also called feedback inhibition- homeostasis is achieved by this, when the level of something is too high over the set point, the body will shut off any more of that being made
    • stops things such as blood pressure becoming too high
    • a self limiting system
  40. Positive Feedback
    • uncommon, not homeostasis
    • a self stimulating system, a little stimulates more and more and more and nothing shuts it off, it is usually stopped by something physical
    • ex: blood clotting- when you get a cut platelets set factors that start a chain reaction for more and more to be made until bleeding stops to stop production
  41. Homeostatic Imbalance
    • when aging, the body is less efficient
    • older people usually have a higher blood pressure
    • there are some people at any age that cant maintain- ex- untreated diabetic
    • imbalance causes a disease, failure to fix can result in death
  42. Imaging
    visualizing the body in medicine
  43. Types of imaging
    • x ray
    • CT scan
    • MRI
    • ultrasound
    • PET scan
  44. xrays
    important for visualizing bone, heart structures and dense structures such as a tumor but not soft tissue
  45. CT scan
    computed tomography- refined X-rays
  46. MRI
    • Magnetic resonance imaging
    • uses magnets not X-rays, good for seeing soft tissue
    • distinguishes fatty vs watery tissue
  47. Ultrasound
    • uses sound waves, not harmful to a fetus like xrays can be
    • shows images and some structures can be detailed in soft tissues but not everything is seen well if surrounded by bone (ex-brain) or air filled (such as the lungs)
  48. PET Scan
    • positron emission tomography
    • not a static picture but you can see metabolic processes and movement
    • involves injection of radioisotopes
  49. What are the 4 basic types of tissues?
    • Epithelium
    • Connective
    • Muscle
    • Nervous
  50. Epithelium Tissue
    • epi- a covering
    • this type is found in several locations, covers body and organs (ex: membranes in kidney or in skin)
    • also lines body cavities and found in glands
  51. Body Cavities
    • spaces in the body which are also called lumens
    • inside mouth, there is epithelial tissue, the opening is the lumen
  52. Connective Tissue
    bind, support and protect structures in the body (ex: cartialage protecting joints so bones dont rub)
  53. Muscle Tissue
    Contracts for movement
  54. Nervous Tissue
    • critical b/c it transmits impulses from one part of the body to another (type of communication)
    • also important for controlling all types of organs
    • ex: impulse to a gland to secrete
  55. What is the zygote?
    • at fertilization you have union of sperm and egg to form fertilized egg also called zygote
    • multiplies by mitosis to make a ball of cells which hollows and forms layers
  56. What are the three tissue layers
    • ectoderm: outer layer; makes some epethilium and nervous tissue
    • mesoderm: middle layer; makes some epithelium, nervous and connective
    • endoderm: inner layer; some epithelium, internal organs
  57. viscera
    • internal organs in the cavities of the body
    • ex: brain, kidney
    • as opposed ot skin on outside or muscle on bone surface
  58. Characteristics of epithelial tissue
    • a little intercellular material (looks like cells are touching)
    • rapid cell division (ex: scrape skin mitosis will replace quickly
    • the cells can be in one or multiple layers
  59. simple epithelium
    • one layer
    • for functions like diffusion/absorption (ex: gas exchange in lungs)
  60. Stratified Epthelium
    • for protection and other functions
    • ex:in skin lining mouth layered cells so if some fall off there are more underneath to protect
  61. 3 basic cell shapes
    • squamous: broad and flat
    • cuboidal: cube like
    • columnar: elongated (nucleus usually near bottom); sometimes have cilia
  62. Categories of epithelial tissue
    • membranous: a covering or lining (skin, membranes of organs
    • glandular: organs that make and secrete some sort of substance are glands
  63. exocrine glands
    • outer
    • secrete directly at the surface of a tissue
    • ex: mucous in mouth
    • or secrete into a duct (tube)
    • ex: sweat glands
  64. Endocrine glands
    • inside
    • secrete hormones into the blood
    • ex: thyroid hormones, hydrocortisone, testosterone, etc
  65. Types of cell structures and examples
    • simple squamous: one layer of broad flat cells; lungs
    • simple cuboidal: kidney
    • simple columnar: stomach
    • pseudostratefied columnar: fake multiple layers but really only one w/ cells squeezed together, can be ciliated
    • stratefied squamous: skin & esophagus 
    • stratefied cuboidal: less common
    • stratefied columnar: less common
    • transitional epethilium: cells dont all look the same, happens in the bladder
  66. Do endocrine glands have a duct?
  67. Types of exocrine glands
    • simple: the duct is straight and not branched
    • compound: duct branches

    • tubular: the cells that secrete form a tube
    • areolar: the cells the secrete form a sac

    ex: simple areolar or simple tubular
  68. How do glands secrete?
    • merocrine: (most common) secrete by exocytosis (type of active transport)
    • halocrine: (very uncommon) secretes when cell ruptures; seen in sebaceous glands
  69. exocytosis
    inner membrane formed around secretion and outer membrane opens to release it
  70. Characteristics of connective tissues
    • more intercellular material than epithelium and its nature (liquid, gel, solid) is important for its function
    • connects, protects for framework of body (bones made of this tissue)
    • not orderly like epithelial (esp loose connective tissue), theres spaces between cells
  71. What is the intercellular material also called?
    • brown substance or matrix
    • there are fibers int he matrix such as collagen (very strong), flexible elastic fibers, and reticular delicate fibers
  72. fibroblasts
    • "blast"-forming 
    • "fibro"-fiber 
    • these cells make the fibers, also will see fat cells and defense cells such as neutrophils
  73. types of connective tissue proper
    • areolar: loose connective tissue
    • adipose tissue: fat, many fat cells
  74. classes of tissues
    • connective tissue proper
    • cartialage
    • bone
    • blood
  75. Oncology
    the study of cancer
  76. carcinogenesis
    process of cancer development
  77. carcinogen
    agent causing a mutation (a change in the DNA of the cell) which causes cancer
  78. does cancer have a genetic link?
    some do (15-20%)
  79. oncogene
    a cancer causing gene
  80. tumor suppressor genes
    these either inactivate the carcinogen or in some way prevent the DNA causing excess multiplication of cells
  81. promotor... example?
    • not a carcinogen, but increases the risk of developing cancer
    • ex: a high saturated fat diet is a risk factor of colon cancer, doesnt cause it, but increases the risk
  82. antipromotor... ex
    • decreases the risk of developing cancer
    • ex: high fiber diet decreases risk of colon cancer
  83. What is the integumentary system comprised of?
    skin and its derivatives (appendages such as hair nails, glands, etc)
  84. Functions of the skin (6)
    • protection
    • body temp regulation
    • cutaneous sensations
    • metabolic functions
    • can serve as a blood reservoir (storage)
    • excretion
  85. What are the types of protective barriers?
    • chemical barrier
    • physical barrier
    • biological barrier
  86. chemical barrier
    • some chemicals in the skin decrease the growth of or destroy bacteria (acids, defensins, and cathelicidens are natural antibiotics)
    • melanin- protien pigment that to some extent protects our body from UV rays
  87. physical barrier
    • stratefied epithelium has many layers to protect  from microbes/harmful material
    • protection from water loss or gain due to many cell layers-water proofing glycolipids
    • keratin is a hard protien (skin, hair, nails) that accummulates in the superficial dead layers. hard substance protects
    • water proofing glycolipids
  88. biological barriers
    • defense cells
    • langerhans cells, macrophages, and dendritic extentions important in phagocytosis
  89. Body temperature regulation
    • if the body is hot it will sweat through skin
    • skin blood vessels dilate, widen and heat radiates into the environment, cooling the body
    • if the body is cold, blood vessels contract to keep heat in
    • fat in hypodermis- acts as insulation for the body preventing heat loss and regulating temp
  90. Do women or men have more sub cutaneous fat?
    • women
    • also many infants dont have much
  91. Cutaneous sensations
    • sensory receptors (nervous cells( give us info on our environment by responding to a stimulus
    • --->exterocepters, tactile receptors, pressure receptors, hair follicle receptors (sense hair movement), pain receptors
  92. exteroceptors
    sense stimulus on outside of the body
  93. touch receptors (2 types)
    • both light touch
    • meissners corpuscles
    • merkel discs
  94. pressure receptors
    • deep in the skin (dermis)
    • pacinian corpuscles- not a free nerve ending, has a capsule at the end
  95. pain receptors
    free nerve endings
  96. Metabolic Functions
    beginning with vitamin D synthesis (vitamin d is a derivative of cholesterol and on exposure to sunlight its synthesis begins)
  97. How can skin serve as a blood reservoir?
    • storage
    • ex: if you are stabbed the blood can be shunted or moved from the skin vessels to another part of the body where you might need it, you constrict the skin and dilate in critical organ blood vessels
  98. Excretion
    sweat: water, salts and some nitrogen containing wastes (such as ammonia, urea and uric acid)
  99. Overall structure of the skin
    • outer layer- epidermis: stratefied squamous epithelium
    • inner layer- dermis: connective tissue
    • subcutaneous layer- hypodermis:layer of connective tissue and fat (adipose)
  100. Dermatology
    medical specialty of the skin and its disorders
  101. Epidermis (types of cells)
    • keratinocytes: (most common) make keratin, cells closest to the dermis are active in mitosis; as they move to the surface of the skin they fill with keratin
    • superficial cells: dead
    • melanocytes: make melanin which is stored via granules in melanosomes (deep in epidermis)
    • defense cells: langerhans cells
    • merkel discs: at the junction btween dermis and epidermis
  102. are there blood vessels in the epidermis?
    • no
    • no sensory receptors except merkel discs
  103. thick skin
    • palms, soles of feet, fingertips
    • 5 layers of epidermis
    • no hair
  104. thin skin
    • thinner layers
    • only 4 visible layers of epidermis
    • has hair
  105. layers of skin (from outer to inner)
    • stratum corneum: outermost layer with dead filled keratin cells that fall off
    • stratum lucidum: clear cells (not seen in thin skin)
    • stratum granulosum: contains pigment granules
    • stratum spinosum: looks spiny
    • stratum basale:closest to the dermis and active in mitosis
  106. What are the layers of the dermis?
    • papillary layer (bump): right under epidermis; contains areolar loose connective tissue
    • reticular layer: most tissue below papillary; dense irregular connective tissue
  107. What does the dermis contain?
    • much thicker than epidermis
    • blood vessels, sensory receptors, hair follicles, and glands
  108. What is innervation to the skin
    • nerve supply to the skin
    • sensory and motor nerves pick up sensory info from the skin and will deliver motor info to the skin
  109. 2 types of motor information
    • stimulate movement of the hair
    • stimulate secretion of the glands
  110. What is color of the skin due to?
    • mostly melanin
    • genetics
    • caratine
    • hemaglobin from blood
  111. melanin
    • deep in epidermis;color of melanin can vary from yellowbrown to red brown to black
    • everyone has same # of melanocytes but type and amount of melanin varies bc melanosomes vary
    • ---> if melanosomes spread out skin looks darker; freckles/moles are concentrations of melanosomes
  112. tanning
    the sun UV rays causes a spread of melanosomes to protect the DNA from being mutated and they make more melanin
  113. caratine
    • yellow/orange pigment
    • in epidermis and dermis
    • can also come from orange food like carrots
  114. how does hemaglobin affect skin color
    depending on how light your skin is if there is in an increase in bloodflow a red pigment can be seen
  115. Hair
    • also called pili
    • a slender filament of keratin (tougher than the keratin in skin)
    • not living except at base
    • found all over the body except for palms, soles, lips, parts of genetilia, reproductive organs and sides of fingers/toes
  116. Hair function
    • protection
    • root has live cells with DNA but all parts of the hair can be used for tests of other types (drugs, led, etc)
  117. hair follicle
    • where the hair develops
    • located where epidermis grows into the dermis
  118. hair color
    • due to melanin
    • grey hair- air pockets in the hair
    • white blonde hair- no pigment
  119. Growth pattern of hair
    • varies between active periods and rest periods
    • a person hair grows fastest from teens to the 40s
  120. 2 basic types of hair
    • vellus hair: fine in texture; children and women have a lot
    • terminal hair: courser, can be longer (eyebrows, scalp); men at puberty, some womens parts at puberty
  121. allopecia
  122. How is baldness in men caused
    there is some natural thinning of women and men as they age but male pattern baldness is genetic and influenced by testosterone
  123. Hirsuitism
    • excessive hairyness in women
    • not just genetic variation
    • due to unusually high testosterone from adrenal glands or ovaries
  124. What is attached to the hair?
    • arrector pili muscle
    • sebaceous glands
  125. arrector pili muscle
    • controls hair movement
    • ex: in response to coldness or emotions, getting goosebumps, the hair will move
  126. sebaceous glands
    • secrete sebum
    • epethilial cells here are light colored due to oil
  127. sebum
    • oil
    • contains fats protein salts
    • keeps hair supple/flexible and skin moist
    • some antibacterial function
    • released into a duct that reaches the surface of the skin
  128. white head
    blocked sebaceous gland duct
  129. blackhead
    • enlarged gland with sebum accumulation
    • can be oxidized and dry
  130. acne (pimples)
    • an infection- blocked duct and bacterial infection
    • antibiotics can treat it
  131. cradle cap
    • seborrhea
    • overactive sebaceous glands
    • patches on skin
    • overactiveness can cause problems other than seborrhea as well
  132. what are nails composed of
    • contain keratin (stronger), modified epithelium
    • formed by stratum corneum
  133. lanule
    • light nail part at top of nail
    • whitish
  134. nail bed
    • general nail part
    • looks pinkish because of blood underneath, end looks white bc no blood under
  135. nail function
    • protection
    • help grab things if long enough
  136. Types of glands
    • sebaceous glands (only attached to hair)
    • sweat glands
    • ceruminous glands (specialized)
  137. sweat glands
    • (sudoriferous glands) secrete perspiration into a duct which empties out at the small opening called the sweat pore on skin surface
    • look darker under microscope
  138. 2 types of sweat glands
    • eccrine glands
    • apocrine glands
  139. eccrine glands
    • common
    • very widely distributed in the body
    • also called merocrine glands although they are just a type (not crucial for test but know)
    • release by exocytosis
    • found on palms, soles, forehead
    • doesnt contain organic molecules, just salt water and nitrogen waste
  140. apocrine glands
    • larger and associated with hair follicles (only found on hairy body parts- armpit pubic etc)
    • contain organic molecules (such as sugar) and bacteria on the surface decompose the sugars and create an odorous substance (B.O.)
    • also called odoriferous glands
    • start at puberty
  141. functions of sweat glands
    • excretion
    • temperature regulation
  142. ceruminous glands
    • secrete cerumin, or ear wax
    • modified sweat glands in the ear canal
    • ear wax protects from physical damage of the ear and from water loss/gain
  143. Health issues of the skin
    • aging
    • skin cancer
    • burns
  144. aging
    • changes occur in skin-increase wrinkling (infolding of skin)
    • collagen in dermis becomes stiffer and skin becomes less elastic
    • layers become thinner
    • hypodermis and skin has less fat
    • decrease in sebum- skin dries and cracks
    • these changes can come from over exposure to sunlight
  145. skin cancer
    • can be precipitated by excessive sun exposure
    • UV radiation increases risk, esp if you burn
  146. types of skin cancer (3)
    • basal cell carcinoma (least problematic, most common)
    • squamous cell carcinoma (2nd most common, more serious than basal but curable)
    • melanoma (least common, most problematic)
  147. basal cell carcinoma
    • cancer of the stratum basal (lowest epi layer)
    • slow growing and seldom spreads 
    • 99% cure success by removal
  148. squamous cell carcinoma
    • all epithelial skin cells are squamous but this deals with keratinocytes and stratum spinosum
    • grows more rapidly and can spread
    • high cure rate if caught early by surgery/radiation
  149. melanoma
    • cancer of melanocytes
    • spreads easily
    • dangerous bc its hard to treat with chemicals making it hard to cure
    • 2% of skin cancer
  150. Signs of skin cancer
    • an irregular shape of a growth, border is uneven
    • different colorations
    • generally large
  151. 3 types of burns
    • 1st degree: only epidermis damaged, red, painful swelling, heals 2-3 days (most nonblister sunburns)
    • 2nd degree: epidermis and upper dermis, blisters, heal 3-4 weeks if no infection
    • 3rd degree: a full thickness burn, epidermis and full dermis damaged, grey, red or black color; treated with antibiotics, IV fluids (bc risk of fluid loss and infection) and sometimes skin grafts; nerve endings destroyed
  152. Sunscreen
    • offer some protection against 1 and 2 degree burns
    • clear-absorb rays
    • opaque- more effective; ZnO, block and reflect rays
  153. Dermatitis
    skin inflammation
  154. difference between skin infection and inflammation
    • infection: microbe is involved
    • inflammation: any factor not necessarily microbe will cause a response (can be chemical, physical, etc)
  155. what happens in inflammation
    • blood will flow to area with defense cells
    • increase in blood clotting factors/platelets incase theres injury
    • redness, dilated blood vessels bringing more blood causing swelling
    • ex causing this: bug bite, poison ivy
  156. Stages of skin repair if cut
    • 1. inflammation (brings defense cells and platelets, blood clot will form scab)
    • 2. organization to restore blood supply to area
    • 3. Regeneration and Fibrosis
  157. organization
    you will develop capillaries (microscopic blood vessels between arteries and veins) to restore blood supply to the dermis
  158. Regeneration and fibrosis
    • regeneration: mitosis of the cells in the epidermis (epithelial cells); takes place under the scab which will fall off after its restored
    • fibrosis: many fiber in dermis bc its connective tissue; fibrous connective tissue forms in dermis to form a scar
  159. Development of the Skin
    • when a fetus develops in pregnancy it must develop all the different tissues
    • develops a lanugo coat (soft delicate hair) which will later be replaced by vellus hair
  160. vernix casseosa
    • cheesy whitish looking substance that comes from sebaceous glands, skin covered at birth
    • developed during pregnancy as a layer of protection from the amniotic fluid, goes away after birth
  161. What happens to the skin during childhood
  162. changes in the skin and hair at puberty
    • mens skin becomes thicker
    • hair and hair oil change
    • women form reproductive hormones
Card Set
Introduction and Tissues
Quiz of 9/10