SOC101 Ch 1

  1. anomie
    Emile Durkheim’s designation for a condition in which social control becomes ineffective as a result of the loss of shared values and of a sense of purpose in society.
  2. conflict perspectives
    the sociological approach that views groups in society as engaged in a continuous power struggle for control of scarce resources.
  3. content analysis
    the systematic examination of cultural artifacts or various forms of communication to extract thematic data and draw conclusions about social life.
  4. correlation
    a relationship that exists when two variables are associated more frequently than could be expected by chance.
  5. Ethnography
    a detailed study of the life and activities of a group of people by researchers who may live with that group over a period of years.
  6. experiment
    a research method involving a carefully designed situation in which the researcher studies the impact of certain variables on subjects’ attitudes or behavior.
  7. functionalist perspective
    the sociological approach that views society as a stable, orderly system.
  8. interview
    a research method using a data-collection encounter in which an interviewer asks the respondent questions and records the answers.
  9. latent functions
    unintended functions that are hidden and remain unacknowledged by participants
  10. macro level analysis
    an approach that examines whole societies, large-scale social structures, and social systems.
  11. manifest functions
    functions that are intended and/or overtly recognized by the participants in a social unit.
  12. micro level analysis
    sociological theory and research that focus on small groups rather than on large-scale social structures.
  13. participant observation
    a research method in which researchers collect data while being part of the activities of the group being studied.
  14. positivism
    a term describing Auguste Comte’s belief that the world can best be understood through scientific inquiry.
  15. postmodern perspective
    the sociological approach that attempts to explain social life in modern societies that are characterized by postindustrialization, consumerism, and global communications.
  16. qualitative research
    sociological research methods that use interpretive description (words) rather than statistics (numbers) to analyze underlying meanings and patterns of social relationships.
  17. quantitative research
    sociological research methods that are based on the goal of scientific objectivity and that focus on data that can be measured numerically.
  18. reliability
    in sociological research, the extent to which a study or research instrument yields consistent results when applied to different individuals at one time or to the same individuals over time.
  19. secondary analysis
    a research method in which researchers use existing material and analyze data that were originally collected by others.
  20. social darwinism
    Herbert Spencer’s belief that those species of animals, including human beings, best adapted to their environment survive and prosper, whereas those poorly adapted die out.
  21. social facts
    Emile Durkheim’s term for patterned ways of acting, thinking, and feeling that exist outside any one individual but that exert social control over each person.
  22. society
    a large social grouping that shares the same geographical territory and is subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations.
  23. sociological imagination
    C.Wright Mills’s term for the ability to see the relationship between individual experiences and the larger society.
  24. sociology
    the systematic study of human society and social interaction.
  25. survey
    a poll in which the researcher gathers facts or attempts to determine the relationships between facts.
  26. theory
    a set of logically interrelated statements that attempts to describe, explain, and (occasionally) predict social events.
  27. validity
    in sociological research, the extent to which a study or research instrument accurately measures what it is supposed to measure.
  28. variable
    in sociological research, any concept with measurable traits or characteristics that can change or vary from one person, time, situation, or society to another.
Card Set
SOC101 Ch 1
vocabulary terms for sociology chapter one quiz