Exam 1 study guide

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    First menstruation
  2. What are the three cycles of the menstruation feedback system?
    • Hypothalamic-pituitary
    • Ovarian
    • Endometrial
  3. What is the average length of a menstrual cycle?
    28 days
  4. What is day 1 of the menstrual cycle?
    First day of bleeding
  5. What is the average duration of the menstrual cycle
    3-6 days (5 days is the average)
  6. What is the average blood loss during the menses?
    20-80 ml (50ml is the average)
  7. What are the three components of uterine discharge?
    • Blood
    • Mucus
    • Epithelial cells
  8. What happens during the hypothalamic-pituitary cycle?
    • Low blood levels of estrogen and progesterone stimulate the hypothalamus to secrete GnRH.
    • GnRH stimulates anterior pituitary secretion of FSH
    • FSH stimulates development of ovarian graafian follicles and their production of estrogen
    • GnRH triggers anterior pituitary to release LH (peaks at day 13-14)
    • Ovum is expelled and if not fertilized, the cycle repeats
  9. GnRH
    Gonadotropin releasing hormone; stimulates anterior pituitary secretion of FSH & LH
  10. FSH
    Follicle stimulating hormone; stimulates development of ovarian graafian follicles and their production of estrogen.
  11. When does LH levels peak?
    13-14 days
  12. What occurs during the ovarian cycle?
    • Follicles mature in each ovary under the influence of FAH and estrogen.
    • Oocyte is realeased during surge of LH & descends to corpus luteum
    • After ovulation, estrogen levels decrease.
    • Corpus luteum reaches peak of functionality 8 days after ovulation (secreting esrogen and progesterone)
    • If ovum is not fertilized and implanted, the functional layer of the endometrium is shed (menstruation)
    Withdrawal bleeding during the ovarian cycle that mostly goes unnoticed.
  14. What is the duration of the luteal phase?
    It begins immediately after ovulation and ends with the start of menstruation
  15. What are the four phases of the endometrial cycle?
    • Menstrual phase
    • Proliferative phase
    • Secretory phase
    • Ischemic phase
  16. What occurs during the menstrual phase?
    Shedding of the functional 2/3 of the endometrium is initiated by periodic vasoconstriction in the upper layers of the endometrium.
  17. What occurs during the proliferatve phase?
    Period of rapid growth of the endometrial layer lasting from about the fifth day to the time of ovulation. (Takes 4 days). This depends on estrogen stimulation derived from ovarian follicles.
  18. What occurs during the secretory phase?
    An edematous, vascular, functional endometrium becomes apparent (from the day of ovulation to about 3 days before the next menstrual period).
  19. What occurs during the ischemic phase?
    Blood supply to the functional endometrium is blocked and necrosis occurs.
  20. What is a woman's BBT (basal body temperature) before ovulation.
    At the time of ovulation, cervical mucus is thin, cleary and stretchy like egg whites.
    Lower abdominal pain that coincides with ovulation
  23. When does implantation occur?
    7-10 days after ovulation
  24. What are prostaglandins (PGs)?
    • Oxygenated fatty acids classified as hormones that are produced in most organs including the uterus. They affects mooth muscle contractility and modulation of hormonal activities.
    • Ovulation: increase w/ LH surge or ovum gets trapped
    • Fertility: semen more motile
    • Cervical: causes dilation
    • Menstruation: sloughing of endometrium
    • Labor/abortion onset
  25. What aree the five categories of families?
    • Married
    • Married-blended families
    • Cohabiting parents
    • Single-parent families
    • No parent families
  26. What are the two types of nuclear families?
    • Married-parent families
    • Married-blended families
  27. Which type of family structure is most common with Hispanic families?
  28. Which type of family structure is most vulnerable economically and socially?
    Single-parent families
    Infant from birth-28 days
  30. What 6 things must occur before a baby can be discharged?
    • Establish respiratons
    • Adjust to circulatory changes
    • Regulate temperature
    • Ingest/digest nutrients
    • Eliminate waste products
    • Grow
  31. How many arteries and veins does the umbilical cord have?
    The umbilical cord has 2 arteries and one vein.
  32. What occurs during the first period of reactivity during the transition to extrauterine life?
    HR increase to 160-180 then decreases to baseline of 100-120, irregular RR of 60-80 BPM
  33. What happens during the second period of reactivity to  extrauterineife
    Tachycardia and tachypnea occurs, meconium passed
    • 1st stool, sticky, stretchy, tar-like and green
    • Formed from amniotic fluid, intestinal secretions, and mucosal cells
  35. How long do the iron stores in the infant last?
    5 months
  36. What is the product derived from a breakdown in Hgb from dead RBC
  37. How long does it take for an infant to void for the first time,?
    24 hours after birth
  38. What should you monitor if the infant is jittery?
    Serum glucose levil
    cheesy white substance that covers the skin and acts like a protectant
    Blue hands/feet
    Broken blood vessels
  43. Subgleal hemorrhage
    Area beneath sheath that connects frontal and occipital muscles, forms the inner surface of scalp. (Associated w/ vacuum)
  44. Desquamation
    Peeling, post mature infants
  45. Mongolian spots
    Common on back and buttocks
  46. Nevus simplex
    • "stork bite"
    • Most common vascular birthmark
    • Made of dialated capillaries
    • Blanch with pressure and more prominent with crying
  47. Strawberry hemangioma
    • Bright, red, raised, soft lobulated tumor
    • Caused by dialated capillaries with endothelial proliferation
    • Gradually increase, then decrease in size
  48. Erythema toxicum
    • "Flea bite"
    • Benugn rash found on 70% ofinfants
    • Small white or yellow papules or vesicles with an erythmateous base
    • Disappears and reappears in different location
  49. Milia
    • Multiple or small, white papules
    • Usually on brow, cheeks and nose
    • Caused by sebaceous gland secretion
    Urethra located on the shaft of the penis
  51. Caput succedaneum
    Fluid between periosteum &brain
    Blood clot
  53. What are the six sleep-wake states?
    • Deep sleep
    • Light sleep
    • Drowsy
    • Quiet alert
    • Active alert
    • Crying
  54. What is the optimal state of arousal
    Quiet alert state
  55. State modulation
    The ability to move between sleep-wake states
  56. What will heat loss in an infant cause
    Acidosis and increase the level of free fatty acids leadig to cold stress
  57. What does the APGAR mneumonic indicate?
    • Appearance
    • Pulse
    • Grimace (cry)
    • Actvity or muscle tone
    • Respiratory rate
  58. Which APGAR score indicates severe distress?
  59. Which APGAR score indicates moderate distresss?
  60. Which APGAR score indicates that the infant is good to go?
  61. What is the average pulse of the newborn.
    • 120-160 (calm)
    • 80-100 (sleeping)
    • <180 (crying)
  62. Tachycardia in the infant
    • > or = 180 beats/min
    • Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS)
  63. Bradycardia in infants
    < or = 80 beats/min
  64. What is the normal range for respiration rates in infants?
    40-60 breaths /min
  65. What is the average weight of an infant?
    2500-4000 g
  66. What is the average blood pressure for infants ?
    60-80/ 40-50 mmHg
    Born before completion of 37 weeks
    34-36 (6/7) weeks
  69. TERMS
    Born between beginning of week 37-42 weeks
    Born after 42 weeks
  71. Homozygous
    Individual having two copies of the same allele for a given trait
  72. Heyerozygous
    Individual having two different alleles for a trait
  73. Genotype
    Genetic makeup of an individual
  74. Phenotype
    Observable traits
  75. Dominant
    Apparent but one copy of allele is present
  76. Recessive
    Expressed when two copies of allele is present
  77. Karotype
    Pictorial analysis of an individuals chromosomes; body tissue (usually WBCs or fetal cells from amniotic fluid)
  78. Monosomy
    Union between a normal gamete and one that is missing a chromosomes
  79. Trisomy 21
    Down syndrome
  80. Trisomy 18
    Edward syndrome
  81. Trisomy 13
    Patau syndrome
    Replication of body cells; DNA replicated and then divided.
    Germ cells divide, decrease chromosomes by half; gametes are produced
    Perforations that allow enzymes to escape and enables penetration of ovum
  85. Where does fertilization occurs?
  86. MORULA
    16 cell solid ball, travels 3 days through tube
  87. Blastocysts
    Developing embryo
    Condition present at birth
  89. When are fetal movements detectable by the mother?
    16-20 weeks
  90. Endoderm
    Respiratory and digest  tracts; abdominal organs
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Exam 1 study guide
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