An Sc 471

  1. Ornithology
    The study of birds
  2. What were chickens originally domesticated for?
    Sport (fighting)
  3. Mechanical processing first developed?
  4. When did breast muscle start being selected for in chickens?
    Since the 1970s
  5. Laying Hen Breeds: Single comb white leghorn
    • Most popular for eggs
    • Avg. egg production per year - 330
  6. Laying Hen Breeds: Brown Leghorn
    • Lays white eggs
    • Lean
  7. Dual purpose breeds: Barred Plymouth Rock
    Lady Victorine?
  8. Dual Purpose Breeds: Rhode Island Red
    • Contributes lots to modern genetics
    • Lays brown eggs
  9. Broiler Breeds: Cornish
    • White, feathers hard to see on carcass
    • Male line
  10. Broiler Breeds: White Rock
    Female line
  11. Araucana
    Lays green eggs, slightly smaller
  12. Hybridization Scheme for Broilers
    4 pure lines (ABCD)
  13. Hybridization Scheme for Layers
    3 pure lines (ABC)
  14. Homogametic sex in chickens
    Males (ZZ)
  15. Heterogametic sex in chickens
    Females (ZW)
  16. Vertically Integrated
    All levels of production, breeding, processing owned by one company
  17. Trap Nests
    Nests a hen goes in to lay and egg, she's trapped in there so someone can mark her ID number on the egg for identification
  18. Oximeter
    Measures the amount of oxygen in your blood
  19. Lixiscope
    Handheld xray to look at bone formation
  20. Off Sex
    • Males for layers
    • -> leghorns, high speed maseration
  21. 42 day live weight increasing by ____% compounded every year (broilers)
  22. Double yolked eggs could survive to ____ days
  23. CV
    Coefficient of variation
  24. High Peak
    all the hens are doing their "personal best" at the same time
  25. Low Peak
    few of the hens are doing their "personal best" at the same time
  26. TRQ
    Tariff rate quota
  27. Holding time
    amount of time eggs sit at hatchery
  28. Fertility %
    % of eggs that are fertile
  29. Hatch %
    % of eggs that hatch
  30. Flock life
    time you keep birds before shipping them out
  31. FF
    fast feather
  32. SF
    slow feather
  33. "picks"
    collecting eggs from the nest box conveyor belt
  34. Brothers
    Sexed wrong at hatchery, supposed to be females but are actually males (male with nail on back toe)
  35. Sisters
    • Male line females
    • Bigger hens, not as good egg producers
  36. Hatch spread
    difference b/w fertility % and hatch %
  37. "scratch"
    Scattering empty calorie feed in the open area so all the chickens come down from the slats, encourages breeding
  38. Circadian Rhythm/cycle
    24 hr physiological clock for animals
  39. Light passes through the skull to stimulate ________ in the hypothalamus
  40. Daylength that chickens need to perceive to be sufficient to to initiate reproductive development?
    11-12 hr daylength
  41. Three levels that control of reproduction occurs at:
    Hypothalamus, pituitary, ovary
  42. Follicles in the ovary produce:
    • estrogen and progesterone
    • - feed back to the hypothalamus to help stimulate sex hormone levels
  43. Estrogen causes:
    maturation of follicles
  44. Progesterone causes:
    LH surge and subsequent rupture of the largest follicle (f1) = ovulation
  45. Open period
    LH release limited to this specific 6-8hr period
  46. Pause day
    If a follicle reaches maturity outside the "open period", it has to wait until the next period to be released
  47. Photorefractoriness (PR)
    • Natural phenomenon that prevents animals from becoming sexually active when ensuing environmental conditions are inopportune
    • Lack of sexual response in birds to daylengths that would otherwise be stimulating
  48. Juvenile PR
    exhibited by seasonal breeding wild birds, stops them from becoming sexually mature the same year they hatch
  49. Adult PR
    • Gonadal regression in advance of unfavourable environmental conditions
    • results in total loss of response to day length
    • occurs in turkeys, broiler breeders
  50. Problems with early light stimulation? (17-19 wks old)
    • Not correct body weight
    • shortens production cycle
    • not enough eggs
    • smaller eggs
    • could screw up reproductive cycle
  51. Broiler breeder pullets should not be < _____ for light stimulation regardless of age
  52. Blastoderm
    fertilized yolk
  53. Blastodisk
    non-fertilized yolk
  54. Ectoderm (1st layer) forms:
    skin, feathers, beak, claws, nervous system, lens + retina of eye, lining of mouth and vent
  55. Endoderm (2nd layer) forms:
    linings of digestive system, respiratory organs
  56. Mesoderm (third layer) forms:
    blood, muscles, bones, reproductive and excretory organs
  57. Chorion
    Outer membrane, encircles the entire embryo, originates from the same tissues that contains an ectoderm and mesoderm layer
  58. Amnion
    Transparent membranous sac around the embryo filled w/ colourless fluid to protect the embryo from mechanical shock, allows it to move freely during development
  59. Yolk Sac
    contains ectoderm and mesoderm growing over surface of yolk, becomes lined with absorbing epithelium for uptake of yolk material
  60. Allantois
    • Formed after 96 hrs of incubation
    • serves as embryonic respiratory organ
    • absorbs albumin which serves as nutrients for embryo
    • absorbs calcium from shell for skeleton of embryo
  61. Artificial Incubation
    Use of mechanical equipment to replace brooding hen for incubation of eggs
  62. Hatch of Fertile
    dividing hatchability by fertility
  63. Hatchability is an ________
    inherited trait (low heritability)
  64. How vitamin D affects hatchability
    • Affects calcium absorption and skeletal development
    • Also eggshell development
  65. Clear Egg
    Infertile, no embryo
  66. Holding temperature and time
    18°C for less than 7 days
  67. Optimum temperature range for incubation
    Usually 37.5°C
  68. Optimum RH for incubation
    • first 18 days: 60%
    • last 3 days: 70%
  69. Incubation period for chickens
    21 days
  70. Two separate incubators used in hatcheries?
    • Setter: 1-18 days
    • Hatcher: 19-21 days
  71. Single Stage Incubation
    all eggs within the incubator are set at same stage of development (all-in all-out incubation)
  72. Chicks can be transported up to _____ without feed and water and still be expected to reach their destination in good condition
    3 days
  73. Brooding
    Care of young poultry beginning from time of hatch (or when received from hatchery)
  74. Rearing
    Encompasses brooding and subsequent growing period until sexual maturity
  75. Spot Brooding
    heat source is local so chicks can move away to cooler areas if they need
  76. Whole-house brooding
    heat source is large and widely spread, birds less able to find areas with a cooler temperature if they want
  77. Temperature for 1 day old chicks should be ______ on the floor where the chicks are
  78. Good depth of litter for floor brooding?
  79. Objectives of broiler production
    Produce a 2kg bird in 35 days, feed conversion of 1.65:1, mortality of < 3%
  80. Stocking density of broilers
    10-12 birds/m2
  81. Alberta regulation for space per broiler breeder
  82. FCR equation
    grams feed intake/gramsgain
  83. DIT
    Diet induced thermogenesis (when heat is released during eating/digestion)
  84. Difference between ME and NE?
    Heat increment
  85. Free Range
    Access to outside
  86. Free Run
    Room to run around (not caged) but no access to outside
  87. ROI eqn
    (return on investment?) = (income-costs)/total spent
  88. Pullet
    sexually immature hen
  89. Off-sex
    The sex of bird not used in that type of production (ex. males in layers)
  90. Laying intensity
    How many weeks  can a bird stay above thresholds
  91. HD
    • Hen-day production
    • = # eggs/hens that laid that day
  92. HH
    • Hen-housed production
    • = # eggs/# hens you started with
  93. Yolk size tends to be determined by ______
    BW of hen
  94. Flushing
    Giving extra feed/energy around the time the birds reach sexual maturity
  95. SCWL
    Single comb white leghorn
  96. DBP
    Dietary balance protein
  97. IP
    Ideal protein
  98. Linoleic acid
    A fatty acid
  99. FLAWSS
    • Feed
    • Lighting programs
    • Air (ventilation)
    • Water
    • Space (stocking density)
    • Sanitation (all in all out, biosecurity)
  100. Scotophase
    dark phase
  101. Photophase
    light phase
  102. "seeding the gut"
    • not breaking the cycle of bacteria
    • reusing litter so birds can pick up good bacteria
  103. competitive exclusion
    w/ bacteria, letting the birds get good bacteria so its harder for bad bacteria to colonize
  104. NE
    • Necrotic Enteritis 
    • often follows coccidia outbreak
  105. Best 2 windows of opportunity for processing:
    8-12hrs and 18-22hrs after feed withdrawl
  106. chicken's true stomach?
    proventriculus ventriculus (gizzard)
  107. birds that eat ______ have a _____ muscle tunic
    harder food, thickened
  108. Koilin layer
    • hardened glyco-protein membrane lining lumen
    • protects gizzard from acid produced in the proventriculus
  109. primary role of liver in digestion?
    bile production
  110. allometry defn
    to measure growth of parts against whole self
  111. Optimization defn
    "an act, process, or methodology of making something as fully perfect, functional, or effective as possible"
  112. What is a model?
    a representation of something else
  113. Gompertz equation (use but also know eqn)
    good for estimating weight at any time when growth is unrestricted
  114. Feed accounts for ____ of the cost of production
  115. Allometry (Huxley's eqn)
    • Image Upload 1
    • Y=weight of part
    • a= scale coefficient 
    • W= BW
    • b= allometric coefficient
  116. What is the shape of the curve when:
    - b=1
    - b<1
    - b>1
    • - linear
    • - slower growth curve 
    • - big number, high exponential growth
  117. thermoneutral environment
    when the animal doesn't have to spend energy adjusting to temperature
  118. DIT
    diet induced thermogenesis
  119. Efficiency
    • amount of resource to produce amount of product
    • gain/feed
    • energy output/energy input
  120. RFI
    residual feed intake
  121. Image Upload 2
    residual maintainence requirement
  122. RE
    retained energy
  123. Ahemeral lighting programs
    light programs that don't add up to 24 hours
  124. DBP
    dietary balanced protein  (ideal protein)
  125. pelleting _____ BW gain and feed efficiency compared to unprocessed mash diets
  126. Drug feed additives
    • theraputic drugs
    • prophylactic drugs
    • antibiotic growth promoters
  127. non-drug feed additives
    • enzymes
    • prebiotics
    • probiotics
    • organic acids
    • antioxidents
    • pellet binders
    • preservatives
  128. typical vaccine forms
    • frozen vaccines (hatchery)
    • live attenuated (freeze dried -> liquid state)
    • killed vaccines
  129. shrinkage
    BW loss from time feed/water removed
  130. DOA
    dead on arrival, unacceptable over 1%
Card Set
An Sc 471
Applied poultry science