Blood pressure is the force
exerted by the blood against the arterial walls.
The blood pressure asses
- cardiac output: how much heart pumps out
- peripheral resistance
- blood volume
- blood viscosity
- vessel wall elasticity
- measures the highest pressure of fluid in the blood vessels. squeezing (contracts)
- blood is ejected from the heart and into arteries.
- normal 100-120 mmHg
- lowest resting pressure of fluid in the blood vessels. resting/ when the heart is filling. BP falls to its baseline level.
- 60-80mm Hg
the difference between the systolic and diastolic pressures.
- High risk to develop hypertension. Intervention: healthy lifestyle
Hypertension Stage 1
- Persistently elevated blood pressure.
- factors: obesity, increased sodium intake, smoking, and decreased exercise
Hypertension stage 2
Prehypertension and hypertension1&2 is determined by
the most out of range number.
- BP under 100/80
- Factors include loss of blood volume and failure in heart muscle to pump adequately
- decrease in BP that occurs when one stands up causing a decrease in blood flow to the brain.
- Characteristics: dizzy and fainting.
Factors that influence BP
- age: increase in older pts
- stress and emotion: increase bp
- medication, gender, exercise, body position, vasodilation/vasoconstriction.
- Head injuries and change in blood volume: decrease bp
proper cuff size: Length of bladder 80% around arm and width 40% around the arm.
False low reading
bladder or cuff is too wide, too large, or if the arm is above heart level
false high reading
too narrow, too short, too small, cuff is too loose, uneven, or arm below heart level.
- ear pieces point to your nose. clean bell surface with alcohol before each use
- Diaphragm: large, high pitched sounds (heart and lungs)
- Bell: Small, low pitched sounds (stomach)
Steps for baseline BP
- explain procedure
- client should rest for 5 min before measurement
- wash hands
- pt arm at heart level and feet flat on the floor
- expose the arm
- locate the brachial artery
- place cuff 1in above the artery center of the cuff bladder
- inflate cuff until you feel the pulse disappear and add 30 mmHg
assessment of systolic and diastolic pressure
- stethoscope over brachial artery
- inflate cuff estimate systolic pressure: +30mmHg
- release pressure valve
- note point you here the first Korotkoff sound: systolic
- note point where the sound disappears: diastolic
pumping up the BP cuff too high
at the beginning of the measurement will raise the blood pressure
Sites to avoid
- pt that has had breast surgery on that side
- pt has an IV on that arm
- pt has a FISTULA used for dialysis in that arm.
The popliteal artery can be used if needed