1. what is the iterpupillary or interorbital line (IPL)
    is a line that connects the pupils or the outer canthi of the patients eyes (line across the eyes horizontally)
  2. what is the superciliary arch
    is the ridge or arch of bone that extends across the forehead directly above each eye
  3. what is the depression slightly above the superciliary arch
    supraorbital groove (SOG)
  4. what is the glabella
    is the smooth slightly raised triangular area between and slightly superior to the eyebrows and above the bridge of the nose
  5. what is the nasion
    is located at the junction of the two nasal bones and the frontal bone
  6. where is the acanthion
    is the midline point at the junction of the upper lip and the nasal septum. This is the point where the nose and upper lip meet.
  7. what is the gonion or angle
    what is the mentum
    it is the area of the lower posterior angle on each side of the jaw or mandible

    the chin
  8. the junction of the upper and lower eyelids are termed ____
  9. what is the inner and outer canthus
    inner canthus is where the eyelids meet closer to the nose and the outer canthus is the

    outer canthus = lateral portion of the eyelid
  10. what is the inferior and superior rim of the bony orbit of the eye
    • superior = supraorbital (SOM)
    • inferior = infraorbital margin (IOM)
  11. what is tragus
    the small cartilaginous flap that covers the opening of the ear
  12. the highest level of the petrous ridge on each side is what landmark
    the TEA (top of ear attachment)
  13. this line extends from eam to the smooth elevation between the superciliary ridges
    glabellomeatal line
  14. this line extends across the front of both eyes
    this line extends from the eam to the outer canthus
    • orbitolmeatal line
    • interpupillary line
  15. this line extends from the eam to the inferior margin of the orbit:
    infraorbital meatal line
  16. this line extends from the glabella to the anterior aspect of the maxilla
    glabelloalveolar line
  17. the lines that is known as the radiographic base line is also the
    infraorbitalmeatal line
  18. angle of the mandible aka
    raise bump on the back of the head
    bridge of the nose
    are under the nose
    edge of the eyelid
    • gonion
    • external occipital protuberance
    • nasion
    • acanthion
    • outer canthus
  19. list all 8 cranial bones
    • frontal 1
    • occipital 1
    • parietal 2
    • temporal 2
    • ethmoid 1
    • sphenoid 1
  20. what are the 14 facialĀ  bones and how many of each
    • mandible 1
    • maxillae 2
    • palatine 2
    • zygomatic (malar) 2
    • nasal 2
    • vomer 1
    • lacrimal 2
    • inferior nasal conchae 2
  21. what is a lambdoidal suture
    a transverse suture the one that joins the occipital and the two parietal bones
  22. what are the plane of skull initials in regards to positioning (4)
    • MP = median plane
    • HP = horizontal plane
    • CP = coronal plane
    • CM = canthomeatal line
  23. where is the glabelloalveolar line
    it extends from the glabella down to the anterior portion of the maxillae
  24. what is the lml
    lips meatal line extends from the eam to the junction of the lips
  25. the infraorbital line (IOML) is aka known as
    reids base line
  26. where is the orbitomeatal line
    located between the outer canthus and EAM
  27. what are the four cranial sutures
    • coronal lambdoidal squamosal
    • and sagittal
  28. List and where are the four points of junction of the skull (4)
    • Asterion - points of junction located posterior to the ear where the squamosal and lambdoidal meet.
    • Bregma - anterior junction of the sagittal suture and coronal suture
    • Lambda - it is located posterior and is junction between sigittal suture and lambdoidal suture
    • Pterion - junctions located at the junction of the parietals temporals and the greater wings of the sphenoid
  29. the glabella is located on the ____ cranial bone
  30. an average sized skull is termed
  31. a short broad skull is termed
  32. a longer narrow skull is termed
  33. in an average sized head the petrous pyramids form and angle of how many degrees
    47 deg
  34. in a dolicocephalic shaped head the petrous pyramids are formed at what angle
    less 47 deg appx 40 deg
  35. a bracycephalic head froms a petrous pyramid at how many degrees from the msp
    greater 47 deg appx 54 deg
  36. what is the inion
    the most prominent point of the external occiptial protuberance
  37. what is the external portion of the ear called (two names)
    auricle or pinna
  38. this landmark is used to rest the side of your eyeglasses
    TEA (top of ear attachment)
  39. the most superior positioning of all the lines is
    GML (glabellomeatal line )
  40. what line is most frequently used for most positioning of the skull
    OML (orbitomeatal line)
  41. When positioning and xraying the kull what is the minimum SID and kv range
    what size focal spot
    • 40 SID
    • 75-90 kv
    • Small focal
  42. What are the 5 common positioning errors
    • rotation
    • tilt
    • excessive rotation
    • extension
    • incorrect CR angle
  43. Erect skull xrays are used for what purpose
    to visualize air fluid levels in the sinus areas
  44. when a baby is born how many fontanels areas are located within the skull
  45. Inion
    mental point
    superciliary ridge
    • external occipital protuberance
    • chin
    • arched bone underneath the eyebrow
    • forehead
    • junction of nasal bones
  46. supraorbital groove
    • depression above the eyebrow
    • angle of mandible
    • junction of eyelids
    • under the nose
  47. List theĀ  4 bones that form the cranial floor
    • sphenoid ethmoid left temporal
    • right temporal
  48. the average measurement of a skull from forntal eminence to external occipital protuberance is _____ cm
    19 cm
  49. what is a positioning error in which the chin is tucked down to much
  50. the average measurement from parietal eminence to parietal eminence is ____ cm
  51. what is the highest level of the facial bones
    Supraorbital groove
  52. highest level of petrous ridge
  53. the vertex is what
    top of the head
  54. interorbital aka
  55. auricular point is aka
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