____ is the second leading cause of death in developed countries of the world.
- Heart disease is the first
- Causes more deaths in children age 3-15 than any other disease
- Survival rates have improved
____ of people who develop cancer each year will be alive 5 years later.
What is the most common type of cancer? Second most common for males? Females?
- Skin cancer is most common
- Prostate cancer 2nd most common in men
- Breast cancer 2nd most common in women
What type of cancer is resistant to therapy?
Cancer is a disorder of ______ cell differentiation and cell growth.
Neoplams are classified as either ____ or _____
Malignant or beningn
What type(s) of tissue cells are found in neoplasms?
Both parenchymal and stromal cells
Which type of neoplasm most closely resembles the normal cells of origin?
- Benign neoplams
- More differentiation means slower rate of growth
The suffix -oma usually denotes what type of neoplasm?
- Benign neoplasms
- Adenoma, fibroma, lipoma, chondroma
- Also papillomas and polyps
_____ neoplams are composed of cells that are less differentiated and less resemble the normal cells of origin both in terms of structure and function.
-carcinoma usually denotes which type of neoplasm?
- Squamous cell carcinoma
What are the two categories of malignant neoplasms?
- 1. Solid tumors: metastasis
- 2. Hematologic cancers: disseminated from beginning, expected to have primary and secondary tumors
What is aneuploidy?
Abnormal chromosome number
The spread of cancerous cells from malignant neoplasms occurs in the following three ways:
- 1. Seeding of cancer cells in body cavity
- 2. Invasion
- 3. Metastatic spread through lymphatic system
Malignant neoplasms synthesize and secrete ____ that break down proteins and contribute to the infiltration, invasion and penetration of surrounding normal tissues.
What two pathways do malignant tumors use to metastasize?
- 1. lymphatic spread via lympatics
- 2. Hematogenous spread via blood vessels
Cancer cells first lodge in the _________ that receives drainage from the neoplasm site.
sentinel lymph node
In hematogenous spread, cancer cells do what?
Stop at the first capillary bed they encounter
The ____ and ____ are the most frequent metastatic sites for a hemtogenous spread of malignant neoplasms.
the liver and lungs
____ cancer preferably spread and metastasizes to bone.
The causes of cancer are twofold and interactive:
- 1. Genetic and molecular mechanisms
- 2. Host and environmental factors that contribute to its development and progression
mutations of genes that control cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis
Environmental factors that cause cancer:
- A: Heredity
- B. Hormones
- C. Obesity
- D. Immunologic Mechanism
- E. Chemical carcinogens
- F. Radiation carcinogens
- G. Biologic Agents: Helicobacter pylori
Oncogenic viruses that can induce cancer:
- 1. Human papilloma virus (HPV)
- 2. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)
- 3. Hepatitis B (HBV)
- 4. Human Herpes virus 8 (HHV-8)
- 5. Hepatitis C virus
Oncogenic virus: Human Papilloma virus
implicated in squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix
Oncogenic virus: Epstein-Barr Virus
causes Burkitt lymphoma, nasopharageal cancer, some Hodkin lymphomas
Oncogenic virus: Hapatitis B Virus
liked to hepatocellular carcinoma
Oncogenic virus: Human herpes virus 8
Kaposi Sarcoma (in immunocompromised patient)
Oncogenic virus: Hepatitis C virus
liked to hepatocellular carcinoma
Biological agent associated with increased risk of bladder and bile duct cancers
severe loss of body muscle and body fat
What is the most common systemic manifestation of cancer?
Fatigue and sleep disoders