Government Ch. 1&2

  1. Government
    institution through which society makes and enforces its public policies
  2. Public Policies
    all of the things a government decides to do (taxtion, defense, education, crime... ect)
  3. 3 types of power every government excersices
    • Legislative power- makes laws (Congress)
    • Executive power- carries out laws (President)
    • Judicial power- interprets laws (Supreme Court)
  4. 4 characteristics of a State
    • population- people
    • territory- land and boundaries
    • sovereignty- absolute power of gov.
    • government- people and machines that a state is ruled by
  5. the social contract theory
    people agree to give up power to the state in return for the State's service to the general well-being of the people
  6. Thomas Hobbs
    • political philosopher who created the social contract theory
    • believed man should give up all of his rights
  7. John Locke
    • known for natural rights which are life, liberty, and property
    • believed man should give some rights but not all
  8. Purpose of Government in the Preamble
    • form a more perfect union,Establish Justice,
    • Domestic tranquility,provide for common defense,General welfare,blessings of liberty
  9. 3 ways to classify government
    by geographic distribution of power, relationship between legislative and executive branches, and # who participates in gov.
  10. Geographic distribution of power
    • unitary gov.: centralized government(all power is held in a single central agency)(Britain)
    • Federal gov.: power is divided between central and local (U.S.A.)
    • Confederation: States have all the power, no central gov. (switzerland)
  11. relationship between executive and legislative branch
    • presidential- (U.S.A.)president is elected through electoral college (branches are equal)(president not part of congress)
    • parliamentary- (Britain) prime minister is elected by parliament (prime minister is apart of parliament)
  12. # who participates
    • Dictatorship- (Russia)one or few people participate
    • Democracy- (U.S.A.) many people participate
    •                     direct- direct elections
    •                      representative- elect people to                       speak for you(US)
  13. Democracy
    people rule
  14. Basice features of American Democracy
    • Fundamental worth of every person
    • equality and opportunity
    • majority rule and minority rights
    • necessity for compromise
    • individual freedom but it cannot be absolute
  15. basic concepts of US gov.
    • ordered government 
    • limited government
    • representative government
  16. Magna Carta 1215: King John I
    • trial by jury and due process
    • no taking life, liberty, or prosperity
    • no taxing without consent of counsel
    • first limits placed on English King
  17. Petiton of Right 1628: Charles I
    • Trial by jury
    • no martial law during peace time
    • no sheltering of troops in private homes w/o home owners consent
    • no tax w/o consent of parliament
    • said monarch was not above the law
  18. English Bill of Rights 1689: William and Mary
    • no standing army in peace time w/o consent of parliament
    • no interference in parliamentary elections
    • no suspending of laws w/o consent of ""
    • subjects may petition the King
    • Trial by jury
    • no cruel or unusual punishment
    • parliament chose monarch
  19. Acts of Britain that lead to Independance
    • sugar act
    •  stamp act
    • tea act
    • intolerable acts
  20. provisions of the intolerable acts
    • closed the port of boston
    • suspended Massachutes legislature
    • put military in charge
    • anyone arrested for being apart of the boston tea party would be tried in Britain
  21. Colony facts
    • Each colony had their own gov. based on English gov.
    • Jamestown founded in 1607
    • Colonists call the 1st continental congress in response to the intolerable acts
    • 1st time the colonies came together
  22. results of the 1st continental congress
    • colonies send a letter to England demanding the intolerable acts be repealed
    • pleadged their support to Mass.
    • agreed to meet next year if nothing changed
  23. actions of the 2nd continental congress
    • became our first national government
    • chose Washington to be commander of the continental army
    • wrote the Articles of Confederation
    • Declaration of Independence was created and signed
  24. Articles of Confederation
    first national constitution(written document that establishes the basis for gov.)
  25. Weaknesses of the Articles
    • only a "firm league of friendship" among states
    • only one vote for each state, regardless of size
    • congress powerless to levy taxes or duties
    • congress powerless to regulate commerce
    • no executive power to enforce acts of Congress
    • no national court system
    • amendments require the consent of all states
    • 9/13 majority vote required to pass laws
Card Set
Government Ch. 1&2
First Coach Cole test