Chapter 1 -Pathology definitions

  1. Pathphysiology:
    Study of the structural and functional changes in cells, tissues, and organs of the body that cause or are caused by disease


    study of abnormal function, and both preventative and therapeutic care
  2. What is disease?
    an interruption, cessation, or disorder in the function of cells, tissues, organs, or organ systems
  3. Name the 6 recognized etiologic causes of disease (BPCMMI):
    Biological, physical forces, chemical agents, molecular, multifactorical, idiopathic
  4. Example of Biologic agents:
    bacteria, viruses, protistan or parasitic worms
  5. Example of physical forces that cause disease:
    burns, being crushed, radiation
  6. Chemical agents that cause disease:
    poison, toxins, etc
  7. Name an example of a molecular cause of disease:
    cystic fibrosis
  8. What does idiopathic mean?
    etiologic agent is UNKNOWN
  9. Disease is characterized by _____ _____ , an identifiable group of _______ and ______, and/or consistant ______ ______.
    • etiologic agents
    • signs and symptoms
    • anatomic alterations
  10. Signs:
    observable/measurable change

    Increased HR, fever, weight gain/loss
  11. Symptoms
    unobservable effects of a disease reported by the patient 

    Pain, difficulty breathing, dizziness
  12. Syndrome:
    characteristic combination of signs/symptoms that are associated with a particular disease
  13. Another way that disease can be characterized is by timing. What are the two terms used to characterize the timing of a disease?
    Congenital- present at birth (may not become evident until later in life)

    Acquired-caused by events after birth
  14. Complications are defined as:
    possible adverse extensions or a disease or outcomes from treatment
  15. What is Sequelae?
    lesions or impairments that follow or are caused by a disease
  16. Define diagnosis
    method to identify the nature and cause of a  health problem
  17. The diagnostic process involves the following 6 steps:
    • History
    • Physical
    • Consider clinical probabilities and determine most likely based on PT characteristics
    • Lab tests or confirm or rule out various diagnoses
    • Interpreting of lab tests
    • Initiate therapy and evaluate response
  18. The onset of a disease can be either ____ or _____.
    Sudden or insidious
  19. Give the conditions associated with acute disease
    rapid onset, develop quickly, relatively sever, short duration, self-limiting
  20. Sub-acute diseases fall in between ?
    Chronic and acute
  21. Chronic conditions are:
    constant, long term, develop slowly, long duration
  22. Give the 5 stages common to infectious diseases (PSCPC):
    • Pre-clinical stage: no measurable signs
    • Sub-clinical stage: no measurable signs, not destined to progress to clinical stage
    • Clinical stage: measurable signs and symptoms
    • Persistent stage: chronic stage
    • Carrier stage: transferable but shows no signs or symptoms
  23. Explain the difference between the pre-clinical and sub-clinical stage or infectious disease:
    Both pre-clinical and sub-clinical stages show no measurable signs of disease, but the pre-clinical disease will eventually progress to the observable clinical stage whereas the sub-clinical stage will not.
  24. Mortality
    subject to death
  25. Morbidity
    the incidence of disease
  26. Therapy
    treatment of disease to cure or reduce patient signs and symptoms
  27. Prognosis
    probably outcome and prospect of recovery from disease; prediction of a patient's survival based on a particular therapy
Card Set
Chapter 1 -Pathology definitions
Material from the notes for test #1