Biochemical Foundations of Physiology -3 Part

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  1. Where does the TCA Cycle occur ?

    Is it a aerobic or anaerobic process ?
    Occurs totally in the mitochondria and is therefore in close proximity to the reactions of the ETC

  2. Before the cycle begins pyruvate is converted to acetyl CoA by what complex ?
    pyruvate dehydrogenase complex
  3. What makes up the pyruvate dehydrogenase
    complex ? Each catalyze part of the overall reaction
    • 1.Pyruvate dehydrogenase (E1) 
    • 2.Dihydrolipoyl transacetylase (E2)
    • 3.Dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (E3)
  4. How many coenzymes does PDH have ?
    5 coenzymes
  5. What are the coenzymes for PDH ?

    1.Pyruvate dehydrogenase (E1)
    2.Dihydrolipoyl transacetylase (E2)
    3.Dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (E3)
    • E1 requires Thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP)
    • E2 requires Lipoic acid and CoA
    • E3 requires FAD and NAD+
  6. Arsenic poisoning is due primarily to inhibition of enzymes that require what coenzyme ?
    Lipoic Acid
  7. A deficiency of Pyruvate dehydrogenase (E1) will cause what ?

    The inability to convert pyruvate to acetyl CoA will make ?
    congenital lactic acidosis

  8. What are the NADH producing step in the TCA cycle ?
    • Pyruvate
    • Isocitrate 
    • a-ketoglutarate
    • Malate
  9. What are the FADH producing steps in the TCA cycle ?
  10. What are the GTP producing step in the TCA cycle ?
    Succinyl Coa
  11. The condensation of acetyl CoA and oxaloacetate to form citrate is catalyzed by what enzyme ?
    citrate synthase

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  12. Citrate is isomerized to isocitrate by what enzyme ?
  13. What enzyme  catalyzes the irreversible oxidative decarboxylation of isocitrate to form α-ketoglutarate ?
    Isocitrate dehydrogenase
  14. The conversion of α-ketoglutarate to succinyl CoA is catalyzed by what enzyme ?
    α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex.
  15. The cleavage of succinyl CoA to form succinate is catalyzed by the what
    enzyme ?
    succinyl CoA synthetase
  16. Succinate is oxidized to fumarate by what enzyme ?
    succinate dehydrogenase
  17. What  is the only enzyme of the TCA cycle
    that is embedded in the inner mitochondrial membrane ?
    Succinate dehydrogenase
  18. Fumarate is hydrated to malate by what enzyme ?
  19. Malate is oxidized to oxaloacetate by what enzyme ?
    malate dehydrogenase
  20. The most important of TCA's 
    these regulated enzymes are those that catalyze reactions with highly negative ∆Go: Which are they ?
    • 1.Citrate synthase
    • 2.Isocitrate dehydrogenase
    • 3.α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex
  21. What is the gross and net production of ATP for glycolysis ?
    • Gross = 4
    • Net = 2
  22. Where is gluconeogensis taking place overnight ?

    What about a prolonged fast ?
    90% liver and 10% Kidneys 

    40% kidneys
Card Set
Biochemical Foundations of Physiology -3 Part
Lecture 3
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