MTC Psychology1120A Chapter 1 Review

  1. Define: Psychology
    Scientific study of behavior and mental processes.
  2. Define: Dualism
    A view that holds that thoughts and feelings (the mind) are distinct from the world of real objects and our bodies.
  3. Define: Scientific Method
    An approach to knowledge that relies on collecting data, generating a theory to explain the data, producing testable hypotheses based on theory, and testing those hypotheses empirically.
  4. Define: Theory
    Systematic explaination of a phenomenon; it organizes known facts, allows us to predict new facts, and permits us to exercise a degree of control over the phenomenon.
  5. Define: Hypotheses
    Specific, testable predictions derived from a theory.
  6. What is Structuralism?
    School of psychology that stresses the basic units of experience and the combinations in which they occur.
  7. What is Functionalism?
    Theory of mental life and behavior that is concerned with how an organism uses its perceptual abilities to function in its enviroment.
  8. What is Psychodynamic Theories?
    Personality theories contending that behavior results from psychological factors that interact within the individual, often outside conscious awareness.
  9. What is Behaviorism?
    School of psychology that studies only observable and measurable behavior.
  10. What is Gestalt Psychology?
    School of psychology that studies how people perceive and experience objects as whole patters.
  11. What is Humanistic Psychology?
    School of psychology that emphasizes nonverbal experience and altered states of consciousness as a means of realizing one's full human potential.
  12. What is Existential Psychology?
    School of psychology that focuses on the meaninglessness and alienation of modern life, and how these factors lead to apathy and psychological problems.
  13. What is the Sociocultural Approach?
    Emphasizes the importance of diversity and the important ways in which culture, gender, race, amd ethnicity can affect virtually all aspects of human behavior.
  14. What is the Biological Approach?
    Belief that biological processes are the sole determinant of thoughts and behavior.
  15. What is Cognative Psychology?
    School of psychology devoted to the study of mental processes in the broadest sense,
  16. What is Evolutionary Psychology?
    An approach to, and sub field of, psychology that is concerned with the evolutionary origins of behaviors and mental process, their adaptive value, and the purposes they continue to server.
  17. What is Positive Psychology?
    An emerging field of psychology that focuses on positive experiences, including subjective well-being, self-determination, the relationship between positive emotions and physical health, and the factors that allow individuals, communities, and societies to flourish.
  18. Define: Gender
    The psychological and social meanings attached to being biologically male or female.
  19. What is the Feminist Theory?
    Feminist theories offer a wide variety of views on the social roles of women and men, the problems and rewards of those roles, and prescriptions for changing those roles.
  20. Define: Race
    A subpopulation of a species, defined according to an identifiable characteristic (that is, geographic location, skin color, hair texture, genes, facial features, and so forth).
  21. Define: Ethnicity
    A common cultural heritage including religion, language, or ancestry-that is shared by a group of individuals.
  22. Define: Culture
    The tangible goods and the values, attitudes, behaviors, and beliefs that are passed from one generation to another.
  23. Define: Naturalistic Observation
    Research method involving the systematic study of animal or human behavior in natural settings rather than in the laboratory.
  24. Define: Observer Bias
    Expectations or biases of the observer that might distort or influence his or her interpretation of what was actually observed.
  25. What is a Case Study?
    Intensive description and analysis of a single individual or just a few individuals.
  26. What is Survey Research?
    Research technique in which questionnaires or interviews are administered to a selected group of people.
  27. What is Correlational Research?
    Research technique based on the naturally occurring relationships between two or more variables.
  28. Define: Experimental Method
    Research technique in which an investigator deliberately manipulates selected events or circumstances and then measures the effects of those manipulations on subsequent behavior.
  29. What are Participants?
    Individuals whose reactions or responses are observed in an experiment.
  30. What is an Independent Variable?
    In an experiment, the variable that is manipulated to test its effects on the other, dependent variables.
  31. What is a Dependent Variable?
    In an experiment, the variable that is measured to se how it is changed by manipulations in the independent variable.
  32. Define: Experimental Group
    In a controlled experiment, the group subjected to a change in the independent variable.
  33. Define: Control Group
    In a controlled experiment, the group not subjected to a change in the independent variable; used for comparison with the experimental group.
  34. What is an Experimenter Bias?
    Expectations by the experimenter that might influence the results of an experiment or its interpretation.
  35. Define: Random Sample
    Sample in which each potential participant has an equal chance of being selected.
  36. Define: Representative Sample
    Sample carefully chosen so that the characteristics of the participants correspond closely to the characteristics of the larger population.
  37. Who sets a code of ethics for psychologists and what are some of the noted ethics that protect subjects?
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MTC Psychology1120A Chapter 1 Review
Chapter 1 only review.