WVSOM Osteopathic Medical Terminology:

  1. Allopathy
    A therapeutic system in which a disease is treated by producing a second condition that is incompatible with or antagonistic to the first.
  2. physiologic barrier
    the limit of active motion
  3. restrictive barrier
    a functional limit that abnormally diminishes the normal physiologic range
  4. pathologic barrier
    a restriction of joint motion associated with pathologic change of tissues
  5. Elastic Barrier
    the range between the physiologic and anatomic barrier of motion in which passive ligamentous stretching occurs before tissue disruption
  6. Anatomic Barrier
    the limit of motion imposed by anatomic structure
  7. Barrier
    the limit to motion: in defining barriers, the palpatory end-feel charactersitics are useful.
  8. Biomechanics
    Mechanic principles applied to the study of biological function; the application of mechanical laws to living structures; the study and knowledge of biological function from an application of mechanical principles.
  9. Body unity
    One of the basic tenets of the osteopathic philosophy; the human being is a dynamic unit of function
  10. Extension
    1. Accepted universal term for backward motion of the spine in a sagittal plane about a transverse axis; in a vertebral unit when the superior part moves backward. 2 In extremities, it is the straitening of a curve or angle (biomechanic). 2. Separation of the ends of a curve in a spinal region.
  11. Flexion
    1. Accepted universal term for forward motion of the spine, it its sagittal plane about a transverse axis, where the superior part moves forward. 2. In the extremities, it is the approximation of a curve or angle (biomechanics). 3. Approximation of the ends of a curvein a spinal region; also called Fryette's regional flexion.
  12. Homeostasis
    1. Maintenance of static or constant condition in the internal environment. 2. The level of well being of an individual maintained by internal physiologic harmony that is hte result of a relatively stable state or equilibrium among the interdependent body functions.
  13. Kyphosis
    1. The exaggerated (pathologic) A-P curve of the thoracic spine with concavity anteriorly. 2. Abnormally increased convexity in the curvature of the thoracic spine as viewed from the side.
  14. lordosis
    1. The anterior convexity in the curvature of the lumbar and cervical spine as viewed from the side. the term is used to refer to abnormally increased curvature (hollow back, saddle back, sway back_ and to the normal curvature (normal lordosis). 2. Hollow back or saddle back; an abnormal extension deformity; anteroposterior curvature of the spine, generally lumbar with the convexity looking anteriorly.
  15. motion
    1. A change of position (rotation, and/or translation) with respect to a fixed system; 2. An act or processof a body changing position in terms of direction, course and velocity.
  16. Active motion
    Movement produced voluntarily by the patient
  17. Inherent motion
    Spontaneous motion of every cell, organ, system and their component units with in the body.
  18. passive motion
    motion induced by the osteopathic practitioner while the patient remains passive or relaxed
  19. physiologic motion
    Changes in position of body structures within the normal range
  20. Translatory motion
    motion of a body part along an axis
  21. neutral
    1. The range of sagittal plane spinal positioning in which the first principle of physiologic motion of the spine applies. 2. The point of balance of an articular surface from which all the motions physiologic to that articulation may take place.
  22. Nonneutral
    The range of sagittal plane spinal positioning in which the second principle of physiologic motion of the spine applies.
  23. Osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT)
    The therapeutic application of manually guided forces by an osteopathic physician (US Usage) to improve physiologic function and/or support homeostasis that has been altered by somatic dysfunction. OMT employs a variety of techniques.
  24. Active method
    Technique in which the person voluntarily performs an osteopathic practioner-directed motion
  25. Articulatory treatment
    See osteopathic manipulative treatment
  26. Articulatory Treatment System (ART)
    a low velocity/moderate to high amplitude technique where a joint is carried through its full motion with the therapeutic goal of increasede range of movement. The activating force is either a repetitive springing motion or repetitive concentric movement of the joint through the restrictive barrier.
  27. Balanced ligamentous tension (BLT)
    1. According to Sutherland's model, all the joints in the body are balanced ligamentous articular mechanisms. The ligaments provide proprioceptive information that guides the muscle response for positioning the joint and the ligaments themselves guide the motion of the articular components. . First described in "Osteopathic Technique of William G. Sutherland"", that was published in the 1949 Year Book of Academy of Applied Osteopathy.
  28. Chapman Reflex
    1. A system of reflex points that present as predictable anterior and posterior fascial tissue texture abnormalities (plaque like changes or stringiness of the involved tissues) assumed to be reflections of visceral dysfunction or pathology. 2. Originally used by Frank Chapman, DO, and described by Charles Owens, DO.
  29. Combined method
    1. A treatment strategy where the initial movements are indirect; as the technique is completed the movements change to direct forces. 2. A manipulative sequence involving two or more different osteopathic manipulative treatment systems (e.g. Spencer technique comnined with muscle energy technique). 2. A concept described by Paul Kimberly, DO
  30. Compression of the fourth Ventricle (CV-4)
    A cranial technique in which the lateral angles of the occipital squama are manually approximated slightly exaggerating the posterior convexity of the occiput and taking the cranium into sustained extension.
  31. Counterstrain (CS)
    1. A system of diagnosis and treatment that considers the dysfunction to be a continuing, inappropriate stain reflex, which is inhibited by applying a position of mild strain in the direction exactly opposite to that of the reflex; this is accomplished by specific directed positioning about the point of tenderness to achieve the desired therapeutic response. 2. Australian and French use: Jones technique, (correction spontaneous by position). 2. Developed by Lawrence Jones, DO
  32. Cranial Treatment (CR)
    see primary respiratory mechanism
  33. CV-4
    Abbreviation for compression of the fourth ventricle
  34. Dalrymple Treatment
    Sea OMT, Pedal Pump
  35. Direct method (D/DIR)
    an osteopathic treatment strategy by which the restrictive barrier is engaged and a final activating force is applied to correct somatic dysfunction.
  36. exaggeration method
    an indirect procedure that involves carrying the dysfunctional part away from the restrictive barrier, then applying a high velocity/low amplitude force in the same direction.
  37. Facilitated oscillatory release technique (FOR)
    1. A technique intended to normalize neuromuscular function by applying a manual oscillatory force, which may be combined with any other ligamentous or myofascial technique. 2. A refinement of a long-standing use of oscillatory force in osteopathic diagnosis and treatment as published in early osteopathic literature. 2. A technique developed by Zachary Comeaux, DO.
  38. Facilitated positional release (FPR)
    a system of indirect myofascial release treatment. The component region of the body is placed into a neutral position, diminishing tissue and joint tension in all planes, and an activating force (compression or torsion) is added. 2. A technique developed by Stanley Schiowitz.
  39. Fascial release treatment
    see OMT, myofascial release
  40. fascial unwinding
    a manual technique involving constant feedback to the osteopathic practitioner who is passively moving a portion of the patient's body in response to the the sensation of movement. Its forces are localized using the sensations of ease and bind over wider regions.
  41. Functional Method
    an indirect treatment approach that involves finding the dynamic balance point and one of the following: applying an indirect guiding force, holding the position or adding compression to exaggerate position and allow for spontaneous readjustment. The osteopathic practitioner guides the manipulative procedure while the dysfunctional area is being palpated in order to obtain a continuous feedback of the physiologic response to induced motion. The osteopathic practitioner guides the dysfunctional part so as to create a decreasing sense of tissue resistance (increased compliance).
  42. Galbreath treatment
    OMT, mandibular drainage
  43. hepatic pump
    rhythmic compression applied over the liver for purposes of increasing blood flow through the liver and enhancing bile and lymphatic drainage from the liver.
  44. high velocity/low amplitude technique (HVLA)
    An osteopathic technique employing a rapid, therapeutic force of brief duration that travels a sshort distance within the anatomic range of motion of a joint, and that engages the restrictive barrier in one or more planes of motion to elicit release of restriction. Also known as thrust technique.
  45. Hoover technique
    1. A form of functional method. 2. Developed by H. V. Hoover, DO. See also OMT, functional technique.
  46. Indirect method (I/IND)
    A manipulative technique where the restrictive barrier is disengaged and the dysfunctional body part is moved away from the restrive barrier until tissue tension is equal in one or all planes and directions.
  47. Inhibitory pressure technique
    The application of steady pressure to soft tissues to reduce reflex activity and produce relaxation.
  48. Integrated neuromusculoskeletal release (INR)
    a treatment system in which combined procedures are designed to stretch and reflexly release patterned soft tissue and joint-related restrictions. Both direct and indirect methods are used interactively.
  49. Jones technique
    see OMT, counterstrain
  50. Ligamentous articular strain technique (LAS)
    1. A manipulative technique in which the goal of treatment s to balance the tension in oppsoing ligaments where there is abnormal tension present. 2. A set of myofascial release techniques described by Howard Lippincott, DO, and Rebecca Lippincott, DO. 3. Title of reference work by Conrad Speece, DO, and William Thomas Crow.
  51. Liver pump
    see Hepatic Pump
  52. Lymphatic pump
    1. A term used to describe the impact of intrathoracic pressure changes on lymphatic flow. This was the name originally give to the thoracic pump technique before the more extensive physiologic effects of the technique were recognized. 2. A term coined by C. Earl Miller, DO.
  53. mandibular drainage technique
    Soft tissue manipulative technique using passively induced jaw motion to effect increased drainage of middle ear structure via the eustachian tube and lymphatics.
  54. Mesenteric release technique (mesenteric lift)
    technique in which tension is taken off the attachment of the root of the mesentery to the posterior body wall. Simultaneously, the abdominal contents are compressed to enhance venous and lymphatic drainage from the bowel.
  55. muscle energy
    1. A system of diagnosis and treatment in which the patient voluntarily moves the body as specifically directed by the osteopathic practitioner. This directed patient action is from a precisely controlled position against a defined resistance by the osteopathic practitioner. 2. Refers to a concept first used by Fred L. Mitchell, Sr, DO, originally called muscle energy treatment.
  56. myofascial relese (MFR)
    a system of diagnosis and treatment first described by Andrew Taylor Still and his early students, which engages continual palpatory feedback to achieve release of myofascial tissues.
  57. direct MFR
    a myofascial tissue restrictive barrier is engaged for the myofascial tissues and the tissue is loaded with a constant force until tissue release occurs.
  58. indirect MFR
    the dysfunctional tissues are guided along the path of least resistance until free movement is achieved.
  59. myofascial technique
    any technique directed at the muscles and fascia. See also OMT, myofascial release; See also OMT, soft tissue technique.
  60. myotension
    a system of diagnosis and treatment that uses muscular contractions and relaxations under resistance of the osteopathic practioner to relax, strengthen or stretch muscles, or mobilize joints.
  61. Osteopathy in the Cranial Field
    1. A system of diagnosis and treatment by an osteopathic practitioner using the primary respiratory mechanism and balnced membranous tension. See also primary respiratory mechanism. 2. Refers to the system of diagnosis and treatment first described by William G. Sutherland, DO. 3. Title of reference work by Harold Magoun, Sr, Do.
  62. Passive Method
    based on techniques in which the patient refrains from voluntary muscle contraction
  63. Pedal Pump
    A venous and lymphatic drainage technique applied through the lower extremities ; also called the pedal fascial pump or Dalrymple treatment.
  64. Percussion vibrator technique
    1. A manipulative technique involving the specific application of mechanical vibratory force to treat somatic dysfunction. 2. An osteopathic manipulative technique developed by Robert Fulford, DO.
  65. positional technique
    a direct segmental technique in which a combination of leverage, patient ventilatory movements and a fulcrum are used to achieve mobilization of the dysfunctional segment. May be combined with springing or thrust technique.
  66. progressive inhibition of neuromuscular structures (PINS)
    1. A system of diagnosis and treatment in which the osteopathic practitioner locates two related pints and sequentially applies inhibitory pressure long a series of related points. 2. Developed by Dennis Dowling, DO.
  67. Range of motion technique
    active or passive movement of a body part to its physiologic anatomic limit in any or all planes of motion.
  68. Soft Tissue (ST)
    a system of diagnosis and treatment directed toward tissues other than skeletal or arthrodial elements.
  69. Spencer Technique
    a series of direct manipulative procedures to prevent or decrease soft tissue restrictions about the shoulder. See also OMT, ART
  70. Splenic pump technique
    rhythmic compression applied over the spleen for the purpose of enhancing the the patients immune response. See also OMT, lymphatic pump.
  71. spontaneous release by positioning
    See OMT counterstrain
  72. Springing technique
    a low velocity/moderate amplitude technique where the restrictive barrier is engaged repeatedly to produce an increased freedom of motion. See also OMT, articulatory treatment system
  73. Still technique
    1. Characterized as a specific non-repetitive articulatory method that is indirect then direct. 2. Atributed to A. T. Still. 3. A term coined by Richard Van Buskirk, DO, PHD.
  74. Strain-Counterstrain
    An osteopathic system of diagnosis and indriect treatment in which the patients's somatic dysfunction, diagnosed by (an) associated myofascial tenderpoint(s), is treated by using a passive position, resulting in spontaneous tissue release and at least 70 percent decrease in tenderness. 2. Developed by Lawrence H. Jones, DO, PhD.
  75. thoracic pump
    1. A technique that consists of intermittent compression of the thoracic cage. 2. Developed by Earl Miller, DO.
  76. Thrust technique (HVLA)
    See high velocity/low amplitude technique
  77. toggle technique
    short lever technique using compression and shearing forces
  78. traction technique
    a procedure of high or low amplitude in which the parts are stretched or separated along a longitudinal axis with continuous or intermittent force.
  79. V-spread
    technique using forces transmitted across the diameter of the skull to accomplish sutural gapping.
  80. ventral techniques
    See OMT, visceral manipulation
  81. Visceral Manipulation (VIS)
    A system of diagnosis and treatment directed to the viscera to improve physiologic function. Typically, the viscera are moved toward their fascial attachments to a pint of fascial balance. Also called ventral techniques.
  82. Professional Definition of "Osteopathic Medicine"
    Osteopathic medicine is a complete system of medical care with a philosophy that combines the needs of the patient with the current practice of medicine, surgery, and obstetrics, that emphasizes the interrelationship between structure and function and that has an appreciation of the body's ability to heal itself.
  83. Lay Definition of "Osteopathic Medicine"
    A doctor of osteopathic medicine (D.O.) is a fully licensed physician who can perform surgery and prescribe medication. Doctors of osteopathic medicine receive extra medical training so they can use their hand to help diagnose and treat their patients. There is a focus on understanding the patients' home and work life in order to treat the whole person.
  84. Osteopathic philosophy
    a concept of health care supported by expanding scientific knowledge that embraces the concept of the unity of the living organisms's structure (anatomy) and function (physiology). Osteopathic philosophy emphasizes the following principles: 1. the human being is a dynamic unit of function. 2. the body processes self-regulatory mechanisms that are self-healing in nature. 3. Structure and function are interrelated at all levels. 4. Rational treatment is based on these principles.
  85. Osteopathic Structural examination
    the examination of a patient by an osteopathic practitioner with emphasis on the neuromosculoskeletal system including palpatory diagnosis for somatic dysfunction and viscerosomatic change within the context of total patient care. The examination is concerned with finding somatic dysfunction in all parts of the body, and is performed with the patient in multiple positions to provide static and dynamic evaluation.
  86. plane
    a flat surface determined by the position of three points in space. Any of a number of imaginary surfaces passing through the body and dividing it into segments.
  87. AP plane
    see sagittal plane
  88. Coronal plane (frontal plane)
    a plane passing longitudinally through the body from one side to the other, and dividing the body into anterior posterior portions.
  89. frontal plane
    see coronal plane
  90. horizontal plane
    see transverse plane
  91. sagittal plane
    a plane passing longitudinally through the body from front to back and dividing the body into right and left portions. The median or midsagittal plane divides the body into approximately equal right and left portions.
  92. transverse plane
    a plane passing horizontally thought the body perpendicular to the sagittal and frontal planes, dividing the body into upper and lower portions.
  93. reflex
    an involuntary nervous system response to a sensory input. the sum total of any particula involuntary activity. See also Chapman reflexes.
  94. cephalogyric reflex
    see oculocephalogyric reflex
  95. cervicolumbar reflex
    automatic contraction of the lumbar paravertebral muscles in response to contraction of postural muscles in the neck.
  96. conditioned reflex
    one that does not occur naturally in the organism or system, but that is developed by regular association of some physiological function with a related outside event.
  97. myotatic reflex
    tonic contraction of the muscles in response to a stretching force, due to stimulation of muscle receptors (e.g.: deep tendon reflex)
  98. oculocephalogyric reflex
    automatic movement of the head that leads or accompanies movement of the eyes.
  99. oculogyric reflex
    see oculopcephalogyric reflex
  100. red reflex
    the erythematous biochemical reaction (reactive hyperemia) of the skin in an area that has been stimulated mechanically by friction. The reflex is greater in degree and duration in an area of acute somatic dysfunction as compared to an area of chronic somatic dysfunction. it is a reflection of the segmentally related symphathicotonia commonly observed in the paraspinal area. 2. A red glow reflected from the fundus of the eye when a light is cast upon the retina.
  101. somatosomatic reflex
    localized somatic stimuli producing patters of reflex response in segmentally related somatic structures.
  102. somatovisceral reflex
    localized somatic stimulation producing patters of reflex response in segmentally related somatic structures.
  103. viscerosomatic reflex
    localized visceral stimuli producing patterns of reflex response in segmentally related somatic structures.
  104. viscerovisceral reflex
    localized visceral stimuli producing patterns of reflex response in segmentally related visceral structures.
  105. rotation
    motion about an axis
  106. rotation dysfunction of the sacrum
    see sacrum, somatic dysfunctions of.
  107. rotation of sacrum
    movement of the sacrum about a vertical (y) axis (usually in relation to the innominate bones)
  108. rotation of vertebra
    movement about the anatomical vertical axis (y axis) of a vertbra; named by the motion of a midpoint on the anterior-superior surface of the vertebral body.
  109. side bending
    movement in a coronal (frontal ) plane about an anterior-posterior (x) axis. Also called lateral flexion, lateroflexion, or flexion right (or left).
  110. somatic dysfunction
    impaired or altered function of related components of the somatic (body framework) system: skeletal, arthrodial and myofascial structures, and their related vascular lymphatic and neural elements. Somatic dysfunction is treatable using osteopathic manipulative treatment. THe positional and motion aspects of somatic dysfunction are best described using at least one of three parameters: 1. The position of a body part as determined by palpation and referenced to its adjacent defined structure, 2. The directions in which motion is freer, and 3. The direction in which motion is restricted. See also T.A.R.T
  111. Acute somatic dysfunction
    immediate or short-term impairment or altered function of related components of the somatic (body framework) system. Characterized in early stages by vasodilation, edema, tenderness, pain and tissue contraction. Diagnosed by history and palpatory assessment of tenderness, asymmetry of motion and relative position, restriction of motion and tissue texture change (T.A.R.T). See also T.A.R.T.
  112. chronic somatic dysfunction
    impairment or altered function of related components of the somatic (body framework) system. It is characterized by tenderness, itching, fibrosis, paresthesias and tissue contraction. Identified by T.A.R.T. See also T.A.R.T
  113. linkage
    dysfunctional segmental behavior where a single vertebra and an adjacent rib respond to the same regional motion tests with identical asymmetric behaviors (rather than opposing behaviors). This suggests visceral reflex inputs.
  114. primary somatic dysfunction
    1. The somatic dysfunction that maintains a total pattern of dysfunction. See also key lesion. 2. The initial or first somatic dysfunction to appear temporally.
  115. Secondary somatic dysfunction
    somatic dysfunction arising either from mechanical or neurophysiologic response subsequent to or as a consequence of other etiologies.
  116. Type I somatic dysfunction
    A group curve of thoracic and;or lumbar vertebrae in which the freedoms of motion are in neutral with sidebending and rotation in opposite directions with maximum rotation at the apex (rotation occurs toward the convexity of the curve) based upon the Principles of Fryette. (American usage). 2. Second degree dysfunction based upon the Laws of Lovett (French usage).
  117. Type II somatic dysfunction
    1. Thoracic or lumbar somatic dysfunction of a single vertbral unit in which the vertebra is significantly flexed or extended with sidebending and rotation in the same direction (rotation occurs into the concavity of the curve) based upon the principles of Fryette (American Usage). 2. First degree dysfunction based upon the laws of lovett (French usage).
  118. T.A.R.T.
    A mnemonic for four diagnostic criteria of somatic dysfunction: tissue texture abnormality, asymmetry, restriction of motion and tenderness, any one of which must be present for the diagnosis.
Card Set
WVSOM Osteopathic Medical Terminology:
Required osteopathic medical terminology for the first test