chapter 12 radiography

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  1. ANATOMY is the:
    Structure of the Body
  2. PHYSIOLOGY is the:
    Function of the Body
  3. Pathology
    Study of Disease
  4. Anatomy 6 levels
    Chemical:Atoms and molecules

    Cellular: Smallest living things

    Tissue: Group of similar cells working together to perform a common function

    Organ: Group of tissues performing together to perform a specific function

    System: A group of organs working together to perform complex functions

    –Body:as a whole Highest level of structural organization
  5. Cells: three main parts
    • –Plasma membrane :Encloses the cytoplasm and forms the outer boundary of the cell. The membrane also serves to
    • provide communication between the cell and the rest of the body

    • Cytoplasm: Consists of fluid and a variety of tiny structures called organelles that perform the work of
    • the cell

    Nucleus: Contains the chromosomes, the hereditary structures that contain the “blueprint” for cell structure and function. They are made up of the complex protein, DNA
  6. Tissues four main parts
    • Epithelial: Perform the
    • basic function of protecting underlying tissues
    • Skin Linings of the stomach and the air passages of the lungs

    • –Connective: Most widely
    • distributed of all tissue Has the
    • greatest variety of form and function Found between tissues and organs Serves to hold
    • them together Makes up the structure of bone, cartilage, and fat.

    • Muscle: Capable of
    • stretching and contracting Function is to
    • produce movement Move the bones Cause
    • the heart to beat Movements
    • required by other body organs

    • Nervous: Consists of the nerve cells
    • called neurons Conduct electric impulses Provide rapid communication between body
    • structures Controls of body functions Support
    • Cells
  7. Organ Systems
    The largest and most complex units of the body

    11 major organ systems











    Skeletal systems
  8. Integumentary
    • Skin
    • Hair
    • Nails

    • Glands
    • –Excrete Oil & Sweat


    • •Enabling the body to respond to
    • –Pain
    • –Pressure
    • –Touch
    • –Changes in temperature
  9. Muscular
    • Function Produce
    • the movements of organs

    –Produce heat

    –Maintaining a constant body temperature

    • •Consists of  Voluntary
    • muscles Control the
    • movements of the skeleton

    • •Under conscious
    • control Involuntary
    • muscles
  10. Nervous
    Function:Controlled by transmission of small electric impulses along the pathways of the nerves



    –Control of body functions

    • Recognition of stimuli
    • Light
    • Heat
    • Pressure

    • •Consists of
    • Central Nervous System (CNS)
    • -Brain
    • -Spinal cord

    • –Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
    • Nerves Carry
    • information
    • between the CNS and all parts of the
  11. Endocrine



    –Regulate body functions

    –Hormones provide slower, longer-lasting control of body function

    •Composed of glands

    –Secrete hormones

    • –Considered ductless glands
    • secretions are released directly into the blood stream
  12. Circulatory
    Also known as the Cardiovascular system

    –Heart Keep blood flowing through the body

    • –Blood Vessels
    • Arteries Carries
    • oxygenated blood away from the heart

    •Veins Carries de-oxygenated blood back to the heart

    • •Capillaries Vessels between the arteries and veins Provide oxygen and nutrients to cells The heart provides a pumping action to keep
    • blood flowing throughout the circulatory system
  13. Lymphatic

    –Supports the immune system

    –Provide lymph, a fluid the surrounds cells

    –Moves fluid and large molecules from cells to circulatory system

    –Communicates via thoracic duct in chest

    •Consists of

    –Lymph nodes

    –Lymph vessels



    –Thymus gland
  14. Respiratory
    • Function: Oxygen from the air is transferred to the blood from the alveoli. Carbon dioxide, a gaseous waste produced when oxygen is used, is transferred from the blood to
    • the alveoli so that it can be exhaled from the lungs Consists of the breathing passages of the body

    • Nose
    • Mouth
    • Pharynx (throat)
    • Trachea (windpipe)
    • Bronchi (singular, bronchus)

    •branching tubes from the trachea to the tissues of the lungs

    –Bronchioles :Small peripheral branches of the bronchi

    • –Aveoli: Sacs at the end of the bronchioles
    • Surrounded by blood vessels

  15. Digestive
    Gastrointestinal Tract or Alimentary Canal

    • –Path of food from the time it enters the mouth until it is excreted as waste Lined
    • with epithelial tissue called mucous membrane. Hollow tube open at both ends

    • –Primary organs: Mouth ,Pharynx ,Esophagus
    • Stomach ,Small intestine , Large intestine , Rectum, Anal canal

    • –Accessory Organs :Aid in digestion
    • Tongue
    • Teeth
    • Salivary glands
    • Liver
    • Gallbladder
    • Pancreas
    • Appendix
  16. Urinary
    Function: Eliminate excess fluid and the waste products Removed from the blood by the kidneys, forming urine. Urine flows through long tubes called ureters and into the bladder Urine empties from the bladder through a tube called the urethra.

    • •Consists of:
    • Kidneys
    • Ureters
    • Bladder
    • Urethra
  17. Reproductive
    Function:Survival of the human race

    –Hormones produced by the reproductive organs promote the development of sexual characteristics

    • –Genitalia
    • - external organs
    • or structure

    –Gonads produce reproductive cells

    • -Male Genitalia
    • Scrotum Penis Gonads Testes Located within the scrotum Sperm (reproductive cells)

    • -Female Genitalia: Vulva, the soft tissues that surround the vaginal opening Gonads
    • Ovaries Located in pelvic portion of abdomen
    • Ova (reproductive cells)
  18. Skeletal
    Provides rigid framework of the body

    •206 Bones

    Cartilage Tough fibrous, connective tissue

    Ligaments Flexible bands of fibrous tissues connect bones and cartilage

    Tendons Bands of fibrous tissues attach muscles to bone
  19. Skeletal 2 parts
    2 parts

    • –Axial
    • Skull
    • Spine
    • Sternum
    • Ribs

    • –Appendicular
    • Arms
    • Legs
    • Pelvis
    • Shoulders
  20. 4 Basic Types of Bone
    • long
    • short
    • flat
    • irregular
  21. long bone
    Long shaft, thick cortex, medullary canal, 2 ends form joint Humerus,phalanges, femur

    Diaphysis Long shaft of bone

    • Metaphysis Flared
    • portion at end of diaphysis

    Epiphysis Round ends forming the joints

    • –Epiphyseal Plate “growth plate” Between
    • metaphysis and epiphysis
  22. short bone
    Cancellous bones with a thin cortex

    •Metacarpal and Metatarsal bones
  23. flat bone
    Compact bone with thin cancellous layer between

    •Skull and scapula
  24. irregular bone
    –Wide variety of shape and structure

    –Vertebrae and facial bones
  25. Structure of Bone
    Cortex Hard outer portion of bone

    Spongy Bone Inside cortex, honeycomb (trabecular) tissue

    • Medullary Cavity Long cavity in center of long bone Contain marrow , Fatty
    • substance , Contains blood vessels ,Immature
    • blood cells

    • Joint Cartilage Surface
    • of bone forming joints

    Periosteum Tough fibrous membrane over bone
  26. Condyle (projection)
    a rounded process that forms part of a joint (example: mandibular condyle of the temporomandibular joint)
  27. Coracoid (projection)
    • a pointed projection (example: coracoid process
    • of the scapula
  28. Coronoid (projection)
    a beaklike projection (example: coronoid process of the mandible)
  29. Crest (projection)
    a bony ridge (example: crest of the ileum, a common positioning landmark)
  30. Epicondyle (projection)
    a projection above a condyle (example: medial epicondyle of the elbow)
  31. Facet (projection)
    • a small, smooth process that forms part of a
    • joint (example: articular surface of the superior articulating process of a vertebra
  32. Head (projection)
    the rounded, wide end of a long bone (example: head of the humerus)
  33. Malleolus (projection)
    a club-shaped projection (example: medial malleolus of the distal tibia)
  34. Process (projection)
    a general term for a projection (example: coracoid process of the scapula)
  35. Protuberance (projection)
    a general term for a projection (example: external occipital protuberance of the skull
  36. Spine (projection)
    a sharp process or a sharp ridge (example: scapular spine)
  37. Styloid (projection)
    a long, sharp process (example: ulnar styloid)
  38. Trochanter (projection)
    one of the large, rounded processes of the femur
  39. Tubercle (projection)
    a small,rounded process (example: greater tubercle of the proximal humerus)
  40. Tuberosity (projection)
    • a rounded process larger than a tubercle, although the terms are sometimes used
    • interchangeably (example: greater tuberosity of the proximal humerus)
  41. Fissure (depression)
    a linear depression, a groove (example: orbital fissure)
  42. Foramen (plural, foramina) depression
    • a hole in a bone for the passage of blood vessels and nerves (example: foramen
    • magnum of the skull base)
  43. Fossa (depression)
    a pit or hollow (example: mandibular fossa of the temporal bone)
  44. Groove (depression)
    a shallow linear depression (example: bicipital groove of the proximal humerus)
  45. Sinus (depression)
    a cavity or hollow space (example: maxillary sinus)
  46. Sulcus (depression)
    a trench-like depression, a deep fissure (example: carotid sulcus of the sphenoid bone)
  47. 3 Classifications of Joints


    - diarthrosis
  48. joints
    bones are joined together
  49. synarthrosis
    a joint does not move

    example the skull
  50. amphiarthrosis
    a joint very limited motion articular surfaces are covered by fibrous cartilage or cushioned by disks of fibrous cartilage
  51. diarthrosis
    • -a joint free movable
    • -bones shaped to fit together
    • articular surfaces are covered by articular cartilage
    • -fibrous capsule lined with synovial membrane surrounds the joint

    -secretes synovial fluid provides moisture and lubrication

    -bursa sacs filled with synovial fluid to cushion the movements of tendons or muscles shoulder , elbow , hip , and knee
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chapter 12 radiography
chapter 12 radiography
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